Macbeth Hogarth Shakespeare by Jo Nesbo — A brilliantly dark and gritty retelling of Macbeth, set in Northern Scotland in the s, from the master of noir. The Neighbourhood by Mario Vargas Llosa — From the Nobel Laureate comes a politically charged detective novel weaving through the underbelly of Peruvian privilege — a crime thriller that evokes the vulgarity of freedom in a corrupt system.
The Cost of Living by Deborah Levy — Witty and ruthlessly honest, a unique memoir of writing and womanhood from the twice-Man Booker-shortlisted author of Swimming Home. Edge of Chaos by Dambisa Moyo — Dambisa Moyo Dead Aid sets out the new political and economic challenges facing the world, and the specific, radical solutions needed to resolve these issues and reignite global growth. Sharp: The Women Who Made an Art of Having an Opinion by Michelle Dean — From acclaimed, award-winning literary critic Michelle Dean, a powerful portrait of ten writers who managed to make their voices heard amidst a climate of sexism and nepotism, from the s to the s.
Adjustment Day by Chuck Palahniuk — In his new novel the author of Fight Club Palahniuk fearlessly makes real the logical conclusion of every separatist fantasy, alternative fact, and conspiracy theory lurking in the American psyche. A trip from the Garden of Eden to Armageddon, via London, plus reggae. Last Stories by William Trevor — In this final collection of ten exquisite, perceptive and profound stories, William Trevor probes into the depths of the human spirit.
Patagonia by Maya Fowler — A new novel from the hugely talented local author of Elephant in the Room. A 15 year-old girl disappears and then comes back — unharmed, but changed. Written in his inimitable and gripping narrative style, goes to the very heart of war,. The stories in this collection span characters, towns, decades, even centuries, but Florida becomes their gravitational centre. Groff pinpoints the moments and decisions and connections behind human pleasure and pain, hope and despair, love and fury — the moments that make us alive. The Golddiggers by Sue Nyathi — The Zimbabwean author recounts the experiences of her fellow compatriots trying to make a life in Jozi.
The stories of these desperate immigrants are both heart-breaking and heartwarming. Most of all it is about what it takes to keep hope alive in a parched and brutal world. A Spy in Time by Imraan Coovadia — a literary time travel novel with a daring and original African-centric story which also touches on global issues history, race and inequality. He told everyone else.
Based on ten years of research comes a dazzling literary debut about the rise and self-destructive fall of Truman Capote and the beautiful, wealthy, vulnerable women he called his swans. Fought alongside Tutu, and never backed down frm the fight. This is a wickedly smart and insightful account of a life in literature.
Axis and Revolution by Gabeba Baderoon — A working title and no information yet, but this is, excitingly, the first novel from the poet and author of Regarding Muslims. At once playful and profoundly serious, this novel melds multiple genres into a unique whole: a mind-bending read and a biting, timely attack on nationalism. Written within the spirit of classic tragedy, the tightly controlled plot and heightened tension, as well as the brutal violence, strives to create something more than your average detective novel.
A literary and genre hybrid that is both entertaining and unusual, suspenseful and complex. Out of My Head by Tim Parks — The bestselling novelist embarks on a quest to discover more about consciousness. From education, to work, to dating, to representation, money and health, they explore the ways in which being black and female affects each of these areas — and offer advice and encouragement on how to navigate them.
Now We Shall be Entirely Free by Andrew Miller — Costa- and Impac-winner Miller is known for his masterful historical novels: here, a soldier home from the disastrous campaign against Napoleon in runs from his demons towards the Hebrides. The Theory of Flight by Siphiwe Ndlovu — No info yet as all very hush hush — but the publisher is very excited about this one!
Juliet Armstrong is recruited as a young woman by an obscure wartime department of the Secret Service. In the aftermath of war she joins the BBC, where her life begins to unravel, and she finally has to come to terms with the consequences of idealism. Breaking News by Alan Rusbridger — Former Guardian editor-in-chief on who controls the news in this era of transformation and why it matters.
The Lies that Bind by Kwame Anthony Appiah — One of a number of books out this year on identity and how it works, from the philosopher and chair of judges for the Man Booker prize. Author of The Assassination of King Shaka. Killing Commendatore by Haruki Murakami — The first novel in four years from the hugely popular Murakami. Thanks for agreeing to do this and be warned, I am still a bit star- and awe-struck! Star struck by me?? You know everything about my life now. Has that given you more expressive freedom as a writer. Why the creative adjective? And has it protected you from any repercussions e.
And that there are conversations I remember differently than others. So this is still very much a true reflection of your childhood and adolescence in exile, and your homecoming and alienation of sorts in SA? Care to comment on that? There is something special about growing up in the demographic majority. And seeing black people in positions of power. Running their own businesses etc. You just KNOW it in your bones.
It gave us extra confidence. AK: The women particularly fascinate me in their fearlessness and feminism. Your mum, Gogo Lindi etc. I come from strong women. Not all of them claimed feminism as their word. But they all owned it in their actions. Now am rereading it with savour. What was the hardest element for you to write about and what the most easy? My childhood memories were so vivid. The last section of the book I really struggled to communicate what I feel like I have learned about life through stories.
I also think the adult stuff was harder to explain because as we get older the challenges we face are more complex. Less easy to navigate as right or wrong. We see and smell the streets. The idea of family was always very important to me as a kid. Because cousins and aunts and stuff were mainly chosen…. It resonates for me as a former UDF person and gets to the heart of the contradictions so many of us grapple with….
On the one hand I was raised to question everything. On the other I was raised to love the ANC. So erm, that has been a complicated one to say the least! SM: Great question. The structural issues of inequality that will make a real difference: quality education. Political party reform and funding transparency too! The library was bigger than the hospital in my village!
Lots of leeway to think aloud and ask questions. In high school we all were pushed intellectually and we rose to the challenge. They have always been proud of my outspokenness. Your empathy and compassion for him was astounding to me…was that hard to write? Lots of survivors I know have empathy because pain has a way of helping you to care.
If that makes sense. It makes you sensitive to pain. Star struck again! And boring to others in terms of reading! A reality of SA today if you are middle class…. Yes it was important for me to put it out there because privilege is real. I expect a lot from my fellow South Africans. If I want white people to be honest about theirs I should be honest about mine. AK: And it comes with responsibility — any type of privilege. Are you a full time writer? If not how do you fit it all in? One is about murders in small towns — it would be a deeply researched book. That sounds fascinating. Non-fic, or fic?
I work 2 days a week school hours at a place called the Centre for Stories. The rest of the time I write. Meaning I wrote 6 hours a day and treated it like a full time job. I edit my work pretty intensely. So it took longer to edit the draft than to write it. And I did that before finding the publisher. Any thoughts on those Sisonke? I hope we finally see a free and fair election for our neighbours. I just want to urge every person on here, especially every south african, to READ this book.
This is a story that will hit you in your heart at times, your head at others and your gut times uncountable. Simultaneously, in small-town Maryland, the sons of a Pullman Porter—gifted six-year-old Eliot and his artistic twelve-year-old brother Dwight—grow up navigating a world expanded both by a visit from civil and labor rights activist A. Philip Randolph and by the legacy of a lynched great-aunt. The four mature into men, directly confronting the fierce resistance to the early civil rights movement, and are all ultimately uprooted.
She sneaks up from behind. Sometimes, it is with moments of humor, but more often with moments of raw emotional power — moments whose pathos feels hard-earned and true …. THWALA — the abduction and forced marriage of a young girl to an older man in South African tribal custom… But could it also be a metaphor for the way in which colonialists took possession of the virgin nations of Africa, lusting after the mineral gifts of the soil, the possession of pristine countryside and innocent souls to be exploited in their quest for power? This love story across the divide of age and colour, an older white farmer to a beautiful young Xhosa girl, set in the last days of apartheid, bears testimony to so many South African lives, twisted by the ruthless hand of political imperatives.
It takes the reader into the mysterious and powerful world of Xhosa culture: thwala; igqira, the diviner; ceremonial marriage;circumcision, and the way in which these sacred institutions have been eroded by the ambivalent influence of Western values. Can the meeting of these powerful forces really create the rainbow nation that South African people so deeply desire? Follow the lives of Nosuthu Stokwe and Andrew Christy from the awe-inspiring rural South African countryside to the urban sprawl of Kayelitsha and the metropolis of Cape Town, to try and appreciate the complexity of the challenges faced by South African people today.
Daniel Amat has left Spain and all that happened there behind him. He arrives back in that old, labyrinthine and near-mythic city a few days before the great World Fair, amid dread whispers of murders — the injuries reminiscent of an ancient curse, and bearing signs of the genius 16th century anatomist, Vesalius. Daniel is soon pulled into the depths of the crime, and eventually into the tunnels below Barcelona, where his own dark past and the future of science are joined in a terrible venture — to bring the secret of Vesalius to life. Gothic and gripping, this historical thriller makes of Barcelona a diabolical character — emerging out of the dark into a new electrical age, aflame with spirit, superstition and science.
I loved it. A darkly hilarious portrait of one dysfunctional American family and its scheming matriarch. Everyone in Cape Cod thinks that Mother is a wonderful woman: pious, hard-working, frugal. Everyone except her husband and seven children. To them she is a selfish and petty tyrant — endlessly comparing her many living children to the one who died in childbirth, keeping a vice-like hold on her offspring even as they try to escape into adulthood. Welcome to Mother Land: a suffocating kingdom of parental narcissism.
This is an engrossing, hilarious and heartbreaking portrait of a modern family — the bickering, the conspiracies, and the drive to overcome the painful ties that bind. But I also found a little bit of myself here. Theroux ends up assassinating all of his characters, but I still enjoyed the play. In October , the handsome young David Sparsholt arrives in Oxford.
A keen athlete and oarsman, he at first seems unaware of the effect he has on others — particularly on the lonely and romantic Evert Dax, son of a celebrated novelist and destined to become a writer himself. While the Blitz rages in London, Oxford exists at a strange remove: an ephemeral, uncertain place, in which nightly blackouts conceal secret liaisons. Over the course of one momentous term, David and Evert forge an unlikely friendship that will colour their lives for decades to come. It explores the social and sexual revolutions of the most pivotal years of the past century, whose life-changing consequences are still being played out to this day.
What should she do now, and which way should she turn, in the emotional labyrinth where she has been trapped for so long? Reawakened by grief and the knowledge of having been grievously wronged, she determines to resume her youthful quest for freedom and independence. Soon Isabel must return to Italy and confront her husband, and seek to break his powerful hold on her. But will she succeed in outwitting him, and securing her revenge? Anna Kerrigan, nearly twelve years old, accompanies her father to the house of a man who, she gleans, is crucial to the survival of her father and her family.
Anna observes the uniformed servants, the lavishing of toys on the children, and some secret pact between her father and Dexter Styles. Years later, her father has disappeared and the country is at war. Anna works at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, where women are allowed to hold jobs that had always belonged to men. She becomes the first female diver, the most dangerous and exclusive of occupations, repairing the ships that will help America win the war. She is the sole provider for her mother, a farm girl who had a brief and glamorous career as a Ziegfield folly, and her lovely, severely disabled sister.
It moves for all the right reasons. From the beginning their mother Susanna knew they were unique: Franny with her skin as pale as milk and blood red hair, who could commune with birds; Jet as shy as she is beautiful, who knows what others are thinking, and Vincent so charismatic that he was built for trouble. But the Owens siblings are desperate to uncover who they really are. Each heads down a life-altering course, filled with secrets and truths, devastation and joy, and magic and love. Gnomic maxims add to a wise, seductive, fabular tone… Thrilling and transportive.
Two male terrorism suspects have escaped from a mosque disguised as women; recently suspicion and fear have made everyone alert. The ferocious professionalism and manic rivalries of a newsroom have rarely been so well described. And at the heart of the newsroom is the brooding, dictatorial figure of its editor, Charles Brython, the booming voice of Middle England.
His world is under threat, and he will do whatever it takes to defend it. This is a story in which comedy teeters on the edge of horror. It needs urgently to be read. Southern fables usually go the other way around. A white woman is killed or harmed in some way, real or imagined, and then, like the moon follows the sun, a black man ends up dead.
But when it comes to law and order, East Texas plays by its own rules — a fact that Darren Mathews, a black Texas Ranger working the backwoods towns of Highway 59, knows all too well. Deeply ambivalent about his home state, he was the first in his family to get as far away from Texas as he could. Until duty called him home. So when allegiance to his roots puts his job in jeopardy, he is drawn to a case in the small town of Lark, where two dead bodies washed up in the bayou. You and your fellow sufferer emerging from a thorough session as if from a spa bath, refreshed and tingling?
The first-ever collection of short stories from Pulitzer Prize-winning author Jeffrey Eugenides presents characters in the midst of personal and national emergencies. These stories, from one of our greatest authors, explore equally rich and intriguing territory. A philandering art dealer tries to give up casual love affairs — seeking only passionate kisses as a substitute. A man recounts his personal history through the things he has stolen from others throughout his life.
A couple chart the journey of their five year relationship backwards, from awkward reunion to lovelorn first encounter. And, at the heart of the book, a year old young woman, Bethany Mellmoth, embarks on a year-long journey of wishful and tentative self-discovery. Profound, lyrical, shocking, wise: the short story is capable of almost anything.
This collection of of the finest stories ever written ranges from the essential to the unexpected, the traditional to the surreal. Wide in scope, both beautiful and vast, this is the perfect companion for any fiction lover. Here are childhood favourites and neglected masters, twenty-first century wits and national treasures, Man Booker Prize winners and Nobel Laureates. Witty, heartbreaking, shocking, satirical: the short story can excite or sadden, entice or repulse.
The one thing it can never be is dull. Now Victoria Hislop, passionate ambassador for the art of the short story, has collected stories from her favourite women writers into one volume. Here are Man Booker Prize winners and Nobel Laureates, well-known feminists and famous wits, national treasures and rising stars.
Clearly it is Ta-Nehisi Coates. From , the leader of the free world was a black man. But it attracted criticism and bred discontent as much as it inspired hope — so much so, that the world now faces an uncertain future under a very different kind of US President. In this essential new book, Ta-Nehisi Coates takes stock of the Obama era, speaking authoritatively from political, ideological and cultural perspectives, drawing a nuanced and penetrating portrait of America today.
Staying with local tribes while trekking in search of giant anteaters in Guyana, Komodo dragons in Indonesia and armadillos in Paraguay, he and the rest of the team battled with cannibal fish, aggressive tree porcupines and escape-artist wild pigs, as well as treacherous terrain and unpredictable weather, to record the incredible beauty and biodiversity of these regions.
The methods may be outdated now, but the fascination and respect for the wildlife, the people and the environment — and the importance of protecting these wild places — is not. No one loves and quarrels, desires and deceives as boldly and brilliantly as Greek gods and goddesses. They are like us, only more so — their actions and adventures scrawled across the heavens above.
From the birth of the universe to the creation of humankind, Stephen Fry — who fell in love with these stories as a child — retells these myths for our tragic, comic, fateful age. Experience the terrible and endless fate of Prometheus after his betrayal of Zeus and shiver as Pandora opens her jar of evil torments.
Mythos — smart, funny, and above all great fun — is the retelling we deserve by a man who has been entertaining the nation for over four decades. A stunning guide to finding creative inspiration and how it can illuminate your life, your work, and your art. What inspires you? Each writer begins with a favourite passage — from a novel, a song, a poem. From there, incredible lessons and stories of life changing encounters with art emerge, like how sneaking a volume of Stephen King stories into his job as a night security guard helped Khaled Hosseini learn that nothing he creates will ever be truly finished.
Or how Junot Diaz learned that great art can be a friend to help us feel less alone in the world when he discovered Toni Morrison in college. A guide to creative living and writing for anyone who wants to learn how great writers find inspiration and how to find some of your own. In the summer of , one year after the rise of the Berlin Wall, a group of daring young West Germans risked prison, Stasi torture and even death to liberate friends, lovers, and strangers in East Berlin by digging tunnels under the Wall.
In response, President John F. Kennedy and his administration, wary of anything that might raise tensions and force a military confrontation with the Soviets, manoeuvred to quash both documentaries. For those who see walls as the answer to policy problems, this book serves as a stark reminder that barriers can never cut people off entirely but only succeed in driving them underground. Of all the great novelists writing today, few show the same gift as Martin Amis for writing non-fiction — his essays, literary criticism and journalism are justly acclaimed.
He makes an effort; he makes readers feel that they are the only person there. The collection includes his essay on Princess Diana and a tribute to his great friend Christopher Hitchens, but at the centre of the book, perhaps inevitably, are essays on politics, and in particular the American election campaigns of and Tamer Elnoury, a long-time undercover agent, joined an elite counterterrorism unit after September Its express purpose is to gain the trust of terrorists whose goals are to take out as many people in as public and devastating a way as possible.
Yet as new as this war still is, the techniques are as old as time. Listen, record and prove terrorist intent. Due to his ongoing work for the FBI, Elnoury writes under a pseudonym. An Arabic-speaking Muslim American, a patriot, a hero. To many people, it will be a revelation that he and his team even exist, let alone the vital and dangerous work they do keeping all of us safe.
Now, for the first time, an active, Muslim American federal agent reveals his experience infiltrating and bringing down a terror cell in North America. It is the first time an active FBI agent has published a book remotely like it. A childhood illness she was not expected to survive. A teenage yearning to escape that nearly ended in disaster. A terrifying encounter on a remote path. A mismanaged labour in an understaffed hospital. It is a book to make you question yourself. What would you do if your life was in danger, and what would you stand to lose?
Dusk is filling the valley. It is the time of the gloaming, the owl-light. There is something about owls. They feature in every major culture from the Stone Age onwards. They are creatures of the night, and thus of magic. They are the birds of ill-tidings, the avian messengers from the Other Side.
But owls — with the sapient flatness of their faces, their big, round eyes, their paternal expressions — are also reassuringly familiar. Human-like, in other words. And in vivid, lyrical prose, he celebrates all the realities of this magnificent creature, whose natural powers are as fantastic as any myth. After recovering from an accident, Finlay Wilson found yoga was the best way to rebuild his strength.
Feast your eyes on his yoga moves and discover why his Kilted Yoga video became an instant global sensation. This beautiful book is both dramatic and inspirational, but also tongue in cheek, quirky and funny. Partly because of its gentle humour, and partly because the language does not assume any knowledge of terms or sequences. And the scenery beats a sterile yoga studio. In this lavishly illustrated title we investigate these spaces.
Since Frank Gehry created the phenomenon that is The Guggenheim in Bilbao, thus transforming the city into a popular tourist destination, there has been a boom in the investment, both creative and financial, in the architecture of museums. They showcase contemporary and experimental architecture at its best. Fully illustrated with exterior and interior photography, Museums encircles the globe and highlights these modern showpieces alongside the timeless splendour of their more classical predecessors.
The buildings presented represent a wide range of spatial and architectural concepts, from the modest to the massive, from the subtle to the show-stopping, from white cubes, to freestanding structural buildings, to lavish baroque masterpieces. The Reflections series by ROADS is a visual exploration of the spaces and buildings that mirror the cultures in which they play such a crucial part. This is the ultimate book on South African innovations and inventions that every South African should own.
It is crammed with information on the awesome variety of new products and services that South Africans, at home and abroad, have invented from pre-colonial times to the present. Written in a highly readable style and richly illustrated, it will astonish, surprise and inspire you! Read about dozens of items that we use every day but which had very humble beginnings. Historic photographs, fascinating anecdotes and illuminating case studies light up the text and make it read like a detective novel. This book clearly shows that South Africans have punched well above their weight in international circles — now you have the opportunity to become an expert on what we have achieved through the ages.
They live in shadows — deep in the forest, late in the night, in the dark recesses of our mind. And yet, no matter how wary and jaded we have become, as individuals or as a society, a part of us remains vulnerable to them. Werewolves and wendigos, poltergeists and vampires, angry elves and vengeful spirits. Mahnke delves into harrowing accounts of cannibalism-some officially documented, others the stuff of speculation. The monsters of folklore have become not only a part of our language but a part of our collective psyche.
Whether these beasts and bogeymen are real or just a reflection of our primal fears, we know, on some level, that not every mystery has been explained, and that the unknown still holds the power to strike fear deep in our hearts and souls. In this new collection from Annie Leibovitz, one of the most influential photographers of our time, iconic portraits sit side by side never-before-published photographs.
Afterword by Annie Leibovitz. In this new collection, Leibovitz has captured the most influential and compelling figures of the last decade in the style that has made her one of the most beloved talents of our time.
(PDF) VICTIMS 2 OF 4 steiner vowalaqo.tk | Francis Joseph - vowalaqo.tk
My previous books were great and sold extremely, unbelievably well—even the ones by dishonest, disgusting so-called journalists. Raymond dips into his past to remind us of scrumping apples, National Service, party lines on telephones, the torment of cinema organs and the endless obsession with laxatives, alongside his take on the absurdities of the modern world. It is one of the most touching childhood memoirs I have read in a very long time; and it makes me yearn — more than any glossy tourist brochure could possibly do — to be once again in Istanbul.
Whether it was Churchill rousing the British to take up arms or the dream of Martin Luther King, Fidel Castro inspiring the Cuban revolution or Barack Obama on Selma and the meaning of America, speeches have profoundly influenced the way we see ourselves and society. Gathered here are some of the most extraordinary and memorable speeches of the last century.
Some are well known, others less so, but all helped form the world we now inhabit. That somebody, somewhere has exactly the same face? Or that most of your memories are fiction? Do you really know why you blush, yawn and cry? Why 90 per cent of laughter has nothing to do with humour? Or what will happen to your mind after you die? You belong to a unique, fascinating and often misunderstood species. Grasping how to swear is a crucial skill to any English-speaker, but it can be a tricky business. This charming and rude book will take you right to the heart of the wondrous world of swearing, with a lot of laughs on the way.
These now perennial favourites and brilliant stocking fillers never disappoint. From renaissance to baroque, rococo to romantics historical art is made hysterical with amusing modern wit. In partnership with Amnesty International UK, this striking notebook will explore themes of freedom through inspirational quotes and illustrations.
Focusing on ideas such as safety, home, family and much more, the book will feature artwork from a rich variety of illustrators and there is plenty of empty space for inspired readers to fill however they like. With a diverse collection of quotes, from Bob Marley to Malala Yousafzai, and Mahatma Gandhi to Harper Lee, this notebook explores and encourages discussions around human rights.
The Italian approach to cooking with meat is to keep things straightforward and maximize the flavour. This book showcases simple, hearty dishes that are true to this tradition, from chicken cacciatore and braised beef with Barolo to osso buco and Roman lamb. Always longed to create perfect pickles, relishes and jams? Cook with the seasons and fill your pantry with mouthwatering relishes, pestos, marinades, rubs and sauces that will add layers of flavour to your favourite dishes. Jampacked is crammed with easy, clever ideas for year-round culinary inspiration.
Whether you want to enjoy Indian cooking, try some new spices, or add more protein to your meals using legumes and lentils, this book has got it covered. Learn the secrets of eclectic Indian taste and textures, and discover meals in which pulses and vegetables are the stars of the dish. Although served for brunch, the recipes are suitable for breakfast, lunch and dinner.
Try the spicy lamb kofta and fatoush from the Emirates or the delicious malva pudding cupcakes with salted caramel sauce and cream cheese icing from South Africa. Alix spent fifteen years in the yachting industry cooking for royalty, celebrities, oligarchs and industrialists. She is the only female chef to have been the Head Chef on four of the top twenty largest yachts in the world. September Hitler is determined to start a war. Chamberlain is desperate to preserve the peace. The issue is to be decided in a city that will forever afterwards be notorious for what takes place there.
Now, as the future of Europe hangs in the balance, their paths are destined to cross again. When the stakes are this high, who are you willing to betray? Your friends, your family, your country or your conscience? Lydia Smith lives her life hiding in plain sight. Trinkets and books; the detritus of a lonely man. But when Lydia flips through his books she finds them defaced in ways both disturbing and inexplicable.
They reveal the psyche of a young man on the verge of an emotional reckoning. And they seem to contain a hidden message. What did Joey know? And what does it have to do with Lydia? Details from that one bloody night begin to circle back. To make matters worse, Charlie Grice, one of the great stage actors of the day, has suddenly died. His widow Joan, the wardrobe mistress, is beside herself with grief. Plunged into a dark new world, Joan realises that though fascism might hide, it never dies. We need to put the fear on you. You need to surrender yourself to death before you ever begin, and accept your life as a state of grace, and then and only then will you be good enough.
At 14, Turtle Alveston knows the use of every gun on her wall; That chaos is coming and only the strong will survive it; That her daddy loves her more than anything else in this world. Sometimes strength is not the same as courage. Sometimes leaving is not the only way to escape. Dear Turtle, a heroine amidst the horror. Exceptional, unflinching storytelling. A collection of seventeen wonderful short stories showing that two-time Oscar winner Tom Hanks is as talented a writer as he is an actor.
A hectic, funny sexual affair between two best friends. A World War II veteran dealing with his emotional and physical scars. A second-rate actor plunged into sudden stardom and a whirlwind press junket. A small-town newspaper columnist with old-fashioned views of the modern world. A woman adjusting to life in a new neighborhood after her divorce. Four friends going to the moon and back in a rocket ship constructed in the backyard.
These are just some of the people and situations that Tom Hanks explores in his first work of fiction, a collection of stories that dissects, with great affection, humour and insight, the human condition and all its foibles. It also establishes him as a welcome and wonderful new voice in contemporary fiction, a voice that perceptively delves beneath the surface of friendships, families, love and normal, everyday behaviour.
I blink, bubble and boggle in amazed admiration. Damn it. As the head of Wits Mining, the last major mining company to do an empowerment deal, Max Sinclair has a mandate from the board and a clear directive: to sell a share of the company to a black consortium. Born and bred in the city that remains, at heart, a mining camp built on gold and the greed of men, Max is used to being a player in the high-stakes game of deals and political influence, and he keeps his cards close to his chest. There is no shortage of takers for the deal. A shareholding spells possible riches for some — like Sifiso Lesibe, geologist and newest member of the board — and increased influence for others.
Support for the deal from government is crucial, particularly when it comes to mining and mineral rights. Politics, power and money are an irresistible combination. Mistrust is everywhere and nothing is as it seems. Former human rights lawyer Musa Madondo has seen the rise and fall of many a former comrade and he knows he is not immune to the tug of temptation. And in Johannesburg, as in politics, things change in an instant.
London, the s. Only two people truly defy him: Jack Sheppard, apprentice turned house-breaker, and his lover, the notorious whore and pickpocket Edgworth Bess. From the condemned cell at Newgate, Bess gives her account of how she and Jack formed the most famous criminal partnership of their age: a tale of lost innocence and harsh survival, passion and danger, bold exploits and spectacular gaol-breaks — and of the price they paid for rousing the mob of Romeville against its corrupt master.
Bess dictates her narrative to Billy Archer, a Grub Street hack and aspiring poet who has rubbed shoulders with Defoe and Swift. As the gallows casts its grim shadow, who will live to escape the Fatal Tree? By the acclaimed author of The Long Firm, this is a tour de force; inventive, atmospheric and rich in the street slang of the era.
Drawing on real figures and a true history of crime, punishment and rough justice, it tells a heart breaking story of love and betrayal. Unlike them, he shows the citizens of Romeville as people, not as folk heroes or bogeymen. The result is powerful, poignant and readable. Who would have thought that a cult crime writer would become the Daniel Defoe of our day? It moved me to tears. In Shaker Heights, a placid, progressive suburb of Cleveland, everything is meticulously planned — from the layout of the winding roads, to the colours of the houses, to the successful lives its residents will go on to lead.
And no one embodies this spirit more than Elena Richardson, whose guiding principle is playing by the rules. Enter Mia Warren — an enigmatic artist and single mother- who arrives in this idyllic bubble with her teenage daughter Pearl, and rents a house from the Richardsons. Soon Mia and Pearl become more than just tenants: all four Richardson children are drawn to the mother-daughter pair. But Mia carries with her a mysterious past, and a disregard for the rules that threatens to upend this carefully ordered community.
When old family friends attempt to adopt a Chinese-American baby, a custody battle erupts that dramatically divides the town — and puts Mia and Elena on opposing sides. But her obsession will come at an unexpected and devastating cost…. Richardson — a woman whose own mission for perfection, and strict adherence to rules ultimately become the catalyst for the maelstrom that ensues.
In , Marianna, the beautiful star soprano at the Lviv opera, is shot dead in the street as she leads the Ukrainian citizens in their protest against Soviet power. Only eleven years old at the time, her daughter tells the story of their family before and after that critical moment — including, ten years later, her own passionate affair with an older, married man.
Just like their home city of Lviv, which stands at the crossroads of nations and cultures, the women in this family have had turbulent lives, scarred by war and political turmoil, but also by their own inability to show each other their feelings. This is an astonishing literary discovery. Down through the epochs and out across the continents, generation upon generation of The Justified Ancients of Mu Mu have told variants of the same story — an end of days story, a final chapter story.
But one with hope, even if the hope at times seems forlorn. The story contained in this trilogy is the latest telling. Here it is presented as a utopian costume drama, set in the near future, written in the recent past. Gimpo ended up in Kiev in what was then the Soviet state of The Ukraine. Trilogy by someone calling themselves George Orwell. What you are about to read is what they read — well, almost.
As for Back in the USSR, if we are able to sell the initial edition of this book and make a return on our investment, we hope to publish that. They were last seen disappearing into the depths of the Black Sea in their decommissioned Project Piranha submarine. This supposed disappearance happened on 23 August Rumour on the internet has it they would not reappear for another twenty-three years. I have taken a moment here to rest, to steal a view of the glorious vista that surrounds me, to look back on the distance I have come.
But I can only rest for a moment, for with freedom comes responsibilities, and I dare not linger, for my long walk is not ended. In , Nelson Mandela became the first president of democratic South Africa. Five years later, he stood down. It tells the extraordinary story of the transition from decades of apartheid rule and the challenges Mandela overcome to make a reality of his cherished vision for a liberated South Africa.
Even as he became a legend, to know the man—Nelson Mandela—is to respect him even more. It is written as a gripping real-life thriller, taking the reader deeper and deeper into the rotten heart of the city. Yet what he found was graft that went far beyond the dodgy contracts, blatant conflicts of interest and garden-variety kickbacks he had seen before. It had evolved into a web far more sophisticated and deep rooted than he had ever imagined, involving mazes of shell companies, assassinations, criminal syndicates, and compromised local politicians.
The metro was effectively controlled by a criminal network, closely allied to a dominant local ANC faction. But there was a personal price to pay. Intense political pressure and threats to his personal safety took a toll on his mental and physical health. He had to have a full-time bodyguard, and never maintained a regular routine. He eventually lost much of his political cover.
Olver ultimately had to flee the city as the forces stacked against him started to wreak their revenge. And can we get out of it? It identifies ten types of supposed truth and explains how easily each can become the midwife of falsehood. There is no species of truth that we can rely on unquestioningly, but that does not mean the truth can never be established. Attaining truth is an achievement we need to work for, and each chapter will end up with a truth we can have some confidence in.
This history builds into a comprehensive and clear explanation of why truth is now so disputed by exploring 10 kinds of truth:. Eternal truths, Authoritative truths, Esoteric truths, Reasoned truths, Evidence-based truths, Creative truths, Relative truths, Powerful truths, Moral truths, Holistic truths. Baggini provides us with all we need to restore faith in the value and possibility of truth as a social enterprise. Truth-seekers need to be sceptical not cynical, autonomous not atomistic, provisional not dogmatic, open not empty, demanding not unreasonable.
Ice is beautiful and complex. And it is vanishing — fast. That same year, she heard her first racial slur. Inspired by her trip and after years of feeling like her voice as a Muslim woman was marginalised during a time when it seemed all Western media could talk about was, ironically, Muslim women, Amani created a website called Muslim Girl. As the editor-in-chief, she put together a team of Muslim women and started a life dedicated to activism.
It is spirited, well-written and informative. For the first time, Hillary Rodham Clinton reveals what she was thinking and feeling during one of the most controversial and unpredictable presidential elections in history. By analysing the evidence and connecting the dots, Hillary shows just how dangerous the forces are that shaped the outcome, and why Americans need to understand them to protect their values and democracy in the future.
It is a candid and blackly funny account of her mood in the direct aftermath of losing to Donald J. It is a post-mortem, in which she is both coroner and corpse. It is a feminist manifesto. It is a score-settling jubilee…. It is worth readin g. Longlisted for the Orwell Prize How do we discuss serious ideas in the age of hour news?
What was rhetoric in the past and what should it be now? And what does Islamic State have in common with Donald Trump? Yet the relationship between politicians, the media and the public is characterised by suspicion, mistrust and apathy. What has gone wrong? Political rhetoric has become stale and the mistrust of politicians has made voters flock to populists who promise authenticity, honesty and truth instead of spin, evasiveness and lies.
The result of decades of first-hand experience of politics and media, this is an essential, brilliant diagnosis of what we should stop doing and what we should start doing in order to reinvigorate Western democracy. In , nearly four million Ukrainians died of starvation, having been deliberately deprived of food. It is one of the most devastating episodes in the history of the twentieth century. It is the fullest account yet published of these terrible events. The book draws on a mass of archival material and first-hand testimony only available since the end of the Soviet Union, as well as the work of Ukrainian scholars all over the world.
It includes accounts of the famine by those who survived it, describing what human beings can do when driven mad by hunger. It also records the actions of extraordinary individuals who did all they could to relieve the suffering. Census reports were falsified and memory suppressed. Some western journalists shamelessly swallowed the Soviet line; others bravely rejected it, and were undermined and harassed.
Red Famine , a triumph of scholarship and human sympathy, is a milestone in the recovery of those memories and that history. At a moment of crisis between Russia and Ukraine, it also shows how far the present is shaped by the past. She deals with questions that have hitherto lacked unequivocal answers. From the author of Leviathan, or, The Whale , comes a composite portrait of the subtle, beautiful, inspired and demented ways in which we have come to terms with our watery planet. In the third of his watery books, the author goes in pursuit of human and animal stories of the sea. Of people enchanted or driven to despair by the water, accompanied by whales and birds and seals — familiar spirits swimming and flying with the author on his meandering odyssey from suburbia into the unknown.
Along the way, he encounters drowned poets and eccentric artists, modernist writers and era-defining performers, wild utopians and national heroes — famous or infamous, they are all surprisingly, and sometimes fatally, linked to the sea. Out of the storm-clouds of the twenty-first century and our restive time, these stories reach back into the past and forward into the future. This is a shape-shifting world that has never been certain, caught between the natural and unnatural, where the state between human and animal is blurred.
Time, space, gender and species become as fluid as the sea. Here humans challenge their landbound lives through art or words or performance or myth, through the animal and the elemental. And here they are forever drawn back to the water, forever lost and found on the infinite sea.
Coetzee, a great novelist himself, is a wise and insightful guide to these works of international literature that span three centuries. The most intriguing essay is one on Philip Roth, a rare occasion where Coetzee tackles one of his contemporaries. It is a celebration of love in all its forms.
They resonate hugely. In Baking with Kafka, Tom Gauld asks the questions no one else dares ask about civilisation as we know it. A quietly essential read. So what if you have talent? Then what? When John Waters delivered his gleefully subversive advice to the graduates of the Rhode Island School of Design, the speech went viral, in part because it was so brilliantly on point about making a living as a creative person.
Now we can all enjoy his sly wisdom in a manifesto that reminds us, no matter what field we choose, to embrace chaos, be nosy, and outrage our critics. Anyone embarking on a creative path, he tells us, would do well to realize that pragmatism and discipline are as important as talent and that rejection is nothing to fear.
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- "Your First Step Towards Podcast Discovery".
- Handbook of Bioentrepreneurship: 4 (International Handbook Series on Entrepreneurship);
Waters advises young people to eavesdrop, listen to their enemies, and horrify us with new ideas. Interviews with women from a variety of backgrounds provide a snapshot of female life around the globe. Each woman shares her unique reply to the same five questions: What really matters to you? With responses ranging from uplifting to heartbreaking, these women offer gifts of empowerment and strength-inviting us to bring positive change at a time when so many are fighting for basic freedom and equality. Each interview is accompanied by a photographic portrait, resulting in a volume that is compelling in word and image and global in its scope and resonance.
This landmark book is published to coincide with an interactive website, building on this remarkable, ever-evolving project. Plus, the best part is that a fraction of the proceeds go towards organisations that empower women around the world. I have endured and persevered to get here. My story matters. Vaya the book brings you the people and stories that inspired the award-winning film. The book provides a rare lens into life on the margins of Johannesburg.
The stories are intimate and hard hitting, funny and heartbreaking, full of courage and humanity in a world that is both capricious and unforgiving. Stories of living on the street, of finding family and friendship in unusual places, and coming to the city full of hope and promise only to be betrayed by the very people one trusts most. Vaya will both shock and inspire. Discover the inspirational world of global street styles and the fascinating stories behind them, accompanied by hundreds of stunning photographs. Organized geographically by continent, this book examines street style in all its international diversity, by tracing the many and varied ways in which it has developed in different regions of the world, from the streets to the catwalk.
If you like true stories about real people, are intrigued by serendipity, curious about curiosities, or maybe you are a collector yourself, then this book is for you. The writers of these words on paper include kings and queens, presidents and prime ministers, admirals and generals, actors and authors, judges and prisoners, philosophers, statesmen, scientists, and sportsmen. Some were famous, some infamous, some important, others less so. Many you will know about; with others, only their names may be familiar.
The chapters need not be read in any set order, although there is an underlying thread linking them to the life of the author that enabled this eclectic collection to evolve in the way it did. In his stunning new baking and desserts cookbook Yotam Ottolenghi and his long-time collaborator Helen Goh bring the Ottolenghi hallmarks of fresh, evocative ingredients, exotic spices and complex flavourings — including fig, rose petal, saffron, aniseed, orange blossom, pistachio and cardamom — to indulgent cakes, biscuits, tarts, puddings, cheesecakes and ice cream.
There is something here to delight everyone — from simple mini-cakes and cookies that parents can make with their children to showstopping layer cakes and roulades that will reignite the imaginations of accomplished bakers. While cooking at Chez Panisse at the start of her career, Samin Nosrat noticed that amid the chaos of the kitchen there were four key principles that her fellow chefs would always fall back on to make their food better: Salt, Fat, Acid and Heat. By mastering these four variables, Samin found the confidence to trust her instincts in the kitchen and cook delicious meals with any ingredients.
As we shall see, scientific theories and the philosophical ideas that are always developed in their wake have changed drastically over the last four hundred years. Our framework has been enlarged again and again. Some would argue that it is now large enough to accommodate the reality of psi; others would argue that these beliefs are relics from the past and have no place in the current scientific worldview.
A few individuals, such as witches, sorcerers, and alchemists, were thought to be able to induce these phenomena for better or for worse: to cure the sick, to see into the future, or to place a hex on someone. When these powers were wielded by a saintly individual, the results were deemed miraculous; on the other hand, the suspicion that these powers were being used for dark purposes could result in someone being burned at the stake. Other sorts of phenomena, such as glimpses of the future in dreams, were considered too commonplace to be either miraculous or diabolic. Among educated people, all this changed with the dawn of the Scientific Revolution.
This momentous mutation in human affairs spans the period between the birth of Galileo in and the death of Newton in Scientific advances during this period had the greatest impact on human affairs since the invention of agriculture and the dawn of civilization. And this period gave rise to a new worldview that drew a sharp distinction between the natural and the supernatural, between the normal and the paranormal. Building upon the earlier works of Johannes Kepler and Galileo, Newton created a system that predicted the motions of the heavenly bodies with astonishing accuracy.
No longer were comets considered portents of disaster: Newton and Edmond Halley calculated the orbits of certain comets and showed that they were as obedient as the planets to the law of gravitation. The universe was now viewed as a gigantic clockwork mechanism. There might still be a need for God to set the machine running — according to Newton the planets were originally hurled by the hand of God — but once started, the solar system was kept going by its own momentum, and operated as a self-regulating machine in accordance with inviolable laws.
These views became prevalent in the eighteenth century, during what became known as the Enlightenment, which can be thought of as the ideological aftermath of the Scientific Revolution. Its most salient feature was the rejection of dogma and tradition in favor of the rule of reason in human affairs, and it was the precursor of modem secular humanism.
Inspired by the dazzling success of the new physics, prominent spokespeople such as Denis Diderot and Voltaire argued for a new worldview based upon an uncompromising mechanism and determinism that left no room for any intervention of mind in nature, whether human or divine. In the previous century, Rene Descartes had written that the bodies of animals and men were machines, governed entirely by the laws of physics.
Animals he regarded as mindless automata, but men, he maintained, had a soul and were thus the sole exceptions in an otherwise deterministic universe. But his successors during the Enlightenment did not hesitate to ask whether human beings themselves might also be, in the final analysis, nothing more than self-regulating machines. One of the brightest stars of the Enlightenment was the Scottish philosopher David Hume, a contemporary of Diderot and Voltaire. In an earlier age, the fallacy of his argument would have been obvious: miraculous events may not have been common, but they had been reported often enough to show that human experience had not been uniform.
But by this time scientists longed for mechanistic certainties, and the assumption grew that there were natural laws that could not be broken and that now mankind knew these laws. Miraculous events did not fit into the new scientific worldview. But the science of Newton, Galileo, and Kepler had given birth to a new metaphysics — philosophical assumptions about the nature of reality — that simply could not accommodate the reality of these phenomena.
Skepticism based on the Humean model had taken hold, and so these reports were, for the most part, simply dismissed as incredible. Lingering widespread belief in the reality of these phenomena was considered to be the unfortunate legacy of a superstitious, irrational, prescientific era. However, parapsychologists part company with the astrologers, palm readers, and other practitioners of the occult arts in the manner in which they treat the evidence, a manner which they claim is scientific.
But the claim that parapsychology is a science — or even that parapsychology has a subject matter to investigate — is, of course, controversial. TWO The Modem Critics At the present time, the opponents of parapsychology are those who see themselves as heirs of the Enlightenment, guardians of rationality who must at all costs discredit any dangerous backsliding into superstition. To this end, they even resort to mockery, the weapon Voltaire so-often wielded against his opponents. Until the mids skeptics and debunkers of paranormal claims were disorganized; they did not have a formal organization with which to advance their point of view.
This upsurge of interest in paranormal claims during the s was not viewed favorably by several individuals in different quarters. One such individual who thought the growing interest signaled a rise in irrationality was Paul Kurtz, then a philosopher at the State University of New York at Buffalo and editor of The Humanist the bimonthly magazine of the American Humanist Association.
In part, the statement read: One would imagine, in this day of widespread enlightenment and education, that it would be unnecessary to debunk belief based on magic and superstition. Yet, acceptance of astrology pervades modem society We are especially disturbed by the uncritical dissemination of astrological charts, forecasts, and horoscopes by the media and by otherwise reputable newspapers, magazines, and book publishers. This can only contribute to the growth of irrationalism and obscurantism.
We believe that the time has come to challenge directly, and forcefully, the pretentious claims of astrological charlatans. The fundamental point is not that the origins of astrology are shrouded in superstition. This is tme as well for chemistry, medicine, and astronomy, to mention only three. To discuss the psychological motivations of those who believe in astrology seems to be quite peripheral to the issue of its validity.
That we can think of no mechanism for astrology is relevant but unconvincing. No mechanism was known, for example, for continental drift when it was proposed by Wegener. Nevertheless, we see that Wegener was right, and those who objected on the grounds of unavailable mechanism were wrong. Statements contradicting borderline, folk, or pseudoscience that appear to have an authoritarian tone can do more damage than good.
They never convince those who are flirting with pseudoscience but merely seem to confirm their impression that scientists are rigid and closed-minded. With Kurtz as editor, The Humanist vigorously criticized paranormal ideas of all kinds, defined as everything from religious faith to popular occultism to the findings of academic parapsychology, and treated them all as irrational superstition. Kurtz and his humanist associates believed interest in unorthodox claims was indicative of hostility to science and criticized favorable coverage of any such claims as dangerously promoting irrationality and primitive superstition.
However, there were other types of skeptics, such as sociologist of science Marcello Truzzi, publisher of The Zetetic, a newsletter that dealt with academic research into anomalies and the paranormal. Although a skeptic about the reality of many anomalous and paranormal phenomena, Truzzi did not regard interest in such matters as itself proof of irrationality or hostility to science.
Nevertheless, Kurtz asked him if he would be cochairman of the committee Kurtz was trying to organize, and even suggested that The Zetetic could be its official publication. Truzzi in turn sought assurances that the new organization would not simply be a debunking operation but would take a more open-minded approach than that of The Humanist. Skinner, behavioral psychologist; W. Quine, Harvard philosopher; and others. These members included the magician James Randi, who had made a career out of attempting to debunk metalbender Uri Geller; Phillip Klass, aviation journalist and critic of UFOlogy; and, of course.
Martin Gardner, columnist, author, and true godfather of the movement. Truzzi, who had become increasingly uncomfortable with the crusading, inquisitional approach of the committee, resigned as cochairman of the organization. Several other noted academics resigned shortly afterward for similar reasons. It concerned a neoastrological claim of French psychologists Michel and Frangoise Gauquelin. With a sample size of 2, sports champions, the odds are millions-to-one against these results occurring by chance.
When the Gauquelins responded and turned out to be a more skilled statistician than his critic, and also intimated possible legal action, Kurtz reportedly became frantic to attack the Mars Effect in print. In response, Rawlins wrote a paper that first cautioned that if the European sample was unreliable, then no conclusions could be based upon it. He then wondered if there was a natural explanation, and proposed one: as seen from Earth, Mars appears near the sun more often than not.
Since birth rates are higher at dawn, one would expect all births not just those of sports champions to be slightly higher with Mars rising Sector 1 or transiting Sector 4. If the 22 percent of the control group were also bom when Mars was rising or transiting, then the Mars Effect would be shown to be due to entirely natural causes. This, of course, is the result Kurtz, Abell, and Zelen expected. When ready, the data on the nonchampions and the subset of champions was delivered to Committee members. Finally, however, the results were published in two papers in the November-December issue of The Humanist.
One paper, written by the Gauquelins, claimed that the results of the Zelen test supported the Mars Effect. The other paper, by Zelen, Kurtz, and Abell, questioned this interpretation. Zelen and his colleagues noted that when female athletes were dropped from the sample, the statistical significance of the results was reduced. They further argued that when the remaining sample was subdivided by geographical locale, the statistical significance of the results was further reduced. In order to gather enough birth records of nonchampions bom within one week of the champions in the same geographical locale, the Gauquelins had been forced to restrict their search to those bom in large metropolitan areas.
Two years later, in their new magazine the Skeptical Inquirer, the Committee published the results of its own study on an American sample, which seemed to disprove the Mars Effect. In response, they conducted their own study and reported positive results, which the Committee in turn refused to accept. The vote for expulsion was unanimous. The following October, Rawlins was also removed from the list of Fellows. The significance of these events would not become known until a year later, when an extraordinary article appeared in the October issue of Fate magazine.
Rawlins — the only planetary motions expert involved with the project — wrote that the CSICOP test on European athletes anc nonchampions had been botched from the beginning. According to Rawlins, Kurtz, Zelen, and Abell had repeatedly ignored his warnings. Then, when results came in supporting the existence of a Mars Effect, the three CSICOP officials covered them up and so distorted them that it appeared that their results did not support the Mars Effect.
When Rawlins refused to drop the issue, he was expelled from the organization. But I have changed my mind about the integrity of some of those who make a career of opposing occultism. Since Gauquelin had found that about 22 percent of the champions were bom when Mars was in Sectors 1 and 4 rising and transiting , and since pure chance would indicate that only 17 percent of births should occur at these times, the purpose of the test was to see if 22 percent of the nonchampions were also bom with Mars in Sectors 1 and 4. Finally something had to be published. The Control Test had entailed analyzing 16, nonchampions bom near in time and space champions a subsample of the original 2, champions.
Faced with this disaster KZA pulled a bait-and-switch. Thus the report will be hereafter called the BS report. Suddenly converting their wowchampions test into a champions test, they attacked the subsample of champions! As will be discussed later, the smaller the sample the weaker its ability to prove anything statistically.
But as Rawlins pointed out, all of this was completely beside the point. The whole purpose of the challenge was to see if the wo?? The subsample of champions was only used as a means of selecting the sample of nonchampions. Pinch and H. Collins concluded: As regards the Committee itself, and similar scientific-vigilante organizations, there are lessons to be learned. This is a strategy that can only be used in complete safety by organizations that do not engage in controversial science themselves. Shortly before he published his expose in Fate, Rawlins and James Randi had a couple of telephone conversations during which Randi suggested that CSICOP distance itself from the Gauquelin matter and not wash its dirty linen in public.
Why get involved in a conspiracy that was as stupid as it was low? A lifetime price — just to prevent a little transient cuckoo chirping. Backed by an aggressive marketing campaign, the magazine achieved wide circulation, claiming a paid worldwide circulation of over 50, by the end of , e although circulation seems to have peaked in recent years.
Since the departure of the more moderate members, little dissent or criticism of the Committee has been seen in the pages of Skeptical Inquirer. This is in remarkable contrast to refereed parapsychology journals, and even some of the pro-paranormal magazines. The existence of these journals is rarely acknowledged in the magazine, and when they are mentioned it is usually only in passing, despite the fact that the former journal has been published for more than sixty years and the latter for more than ninety. At the very least it would, I thought, offer useful balance to journals with a clear bent toward belief in the paranormal.
I was particularly enthused about the Skeptical Inquirer's policy of reviewing research on anomalous mental capacities published elsewhere. I figured that C SIC OP would help me come up with useful challenges to articles written from the more credulous side. Reading the Skeptical Inquirer was like reading a fundamentalist religious tract. I found the journal dismayingly snide, regularly punctuated by sarcasm, self-congratulation, and nastiness, all parading as reverence for true science.
A substantial portion of the members share similar views on religion and are active in promoting them. The National Research Council report on parapsychology is an example.
All three have served on the Executive Council of the Committee. Ever cofounder Marcello Truzzi who, as mentioned above, has long since resigned has served as vice president of the Psychic Entertainers Association. The large and important role conjurors have played within CSICOP may give one the impression that most professional magicians are skeptical about the existence of psi. Surprisingly, various polls have shown that conjurors seem to believe in the reality of psi in even greater numbers than members of the general public.
The influence of religion on the antiparanormal views of the Committee cannot be overstated, and it is apparent in the writing of many of its leading spokespersons, such as Paul Kurtz, James Alcock, and Martin Gardner, all of whom are, or have been, members of the Executive Council. Prometheus has also published books written by Kurtz himself, such as The Transcendental Temptation: A Critique of Religion and the Paranormal, the title of which speaks for itself. Alcock writes: In the name of religion human beings have committed genocide, toppled thrones, built gargantuan shrines, practiced ritual murder, forced others to conform to their way of life, eschewed the pleasures of the flesh, flagellated themselves, or given away all their possessions and become martyrs.
An examination of the origins and functions of religion One can only guesj what Kurtz and Alcock think of the opinions of fellow member Martin Gardner, who frankly acknowledged the influence his religious beliefs have had on his opposition to parapsychology when he wrote: It is possible that paranormal forces not yet established may allow prayers to influence the material world, and I certainly am not saying that this possibility should be mled out. There can be no doubt that some of the psychological needs that promote belief in religion such as the desire to influence nature and for life after death are at least partially responsible for the widespread interest in parapsychology.
Modem science has discredited naive and literal interpretations of many religions, so some people have looked to parapsychology for empirical evidence of a mental and perhaps spiritual realm over and above the material world. Indeed, a desire to challenge what they regarded as the depressing mechanistic worldview proposed by nineteenth-century science, combined with an intense curiosity about the evidence for life after death, formed an explicit and openly acknowledged part of the motivation of many of those who founded the Society for Psychical Research in The revolutionary new science that began in the seventeenth century, with its mechanistic assumptions, gave intellectuals the tools to effectively challenge the authority of church and scripture, and to replace it with an appeal to human reason and secular values.
The new worldview, spread by people such as Diderot and Voltaire, can be seen partly as a reaction to the ecclesiastical domination over thought that the church held for centuries. And it is this worldview that is defended by modem secular humanists, which they rightly see as threatened by the claims of parapsychology. For many humanists, the widespread acceptance of these claims would be the first step in a return to religious fanaticism, superstition, and irrationality. This book will consider whether or not there is convincing scientific evidence for the existence of these phenomena; whether or not the existence of these phenomena would be in conflict with modem science; and whether or not parapsychology is a science.
As this organization no longer performs any research of its own, the true nature of CSI is clearly that of a scientific vigilante organization defending a narrow brand of scientific fundamentalism, whose major goal has been to influence the media and, through it, public opinion. Many writers have pointed out that true skepticism involves the practice of doubt, not of simple denial, and so, according to this criterion, CSI does not truly qualify as an organization of skeptics.
They have sometimes displayed more emotion than logic, made sweeping charges beyond what they reasonably support, failed to adequately document their assertions, and, in general, have failed to do the homework necessary to make their challenges credible. As we will see in chapter 15, twentieth-century models of science show that science has a marvelously self-correcting mechanism built into it, and so there is no need for self-appointed vigilantes to guard the gates. The debate over the reality of psi will be ultimately settled not at press conferences but by the quality of the data gathered by those who conduct serious research.
Indeed, the quality of the data has resulted in changing views among the skeptics in recent years, and several prominent skeptics have been forced to make some notable concessions, which, for the most part, they are not eager to advertise. Parapsychologist Dean Radin pointed out: In the s alone, seminars on psi research were part of the regular programs at the annual conferences of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Psychological Association, and the American Statistical Association. Invited lectures on the status of psi research were presented for diplomats at the United Nations, for academics at Harvard University, and for scientists at Bell Laboratories.
The pentagon has not overlooked these activities. From to , five different U. The reviews were prompted by concerns that if psi was genuine, it might be important for national security reasons. Radical new ideas in fields as diverse as physics and cognitive science have transformed our understanding of nature, and, as a result, a new scientific worldview is emerging, one that is consistent with the reality of psi.
Parapsychologists have developed new and more rigorous experimental techniques, physicists and psychologists have developed testable theories about how psi may work, and the skeptics have been forced to make some notable concessions. As always, the defenders of the old order are not giving up without a fight. But as will be seen in the pages that follow, the old regime may be on the verge of collapse. Many of the ideas presented in the pages that follow may seem strange, and many of them are strange. But I can do no better at this point than to quote the late biologist J.
BROAD One needs to remember that skepticism is not necessarily a badge of toughmindedness: it may equally be a sign of in tellectual cowardice. He thus considered launching a preemptive strike against his enemies. Croesus wanted advice, but he was unsure about which of the halfdozen oracles doing business in and around Greece he should consult.
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So he devised a test. The answers given to the messengers were to be taken down in writing and brought back to Lydia. None of the replies remain on record except that from the Oracle at Delphi. Herodotus tells us that the moment the Lydians entered the sanctuary, the Pythoness answered them in hexameter verse: I can count the sands, and I can measure the ocean; I have ears for the silent, and know what the dumb man means; Lo!
On my sense there strikes the smell of a shell-covered tortoise, Boiling now on a fire, with the flesh of a lamb, in a cauldron — Brass is the vessel below, and brass the cover above it. On that day Croesus had cut a lamb and a tortoise into pieces and boiled the flesh in a brass cauldron. Impressed only with this answer, Croesus consulted the Oracle at Delphi a second time. Should he attack the Persians? The Pythoness answered that if Croesus attacked the Persians, he would destroy a mighty empire. So Croesus attacked, and lost both the war and his empire.
Another ancient story concerns the Greek traveler and philosopher Apollonius of Tyana. While in Ephesus he suddenly began to describe an attack on the cruel Roman emperor Domitian in Rome, to the astonishment of bystanders. Later, they were still more astonished to learn that Domitian had, in fact, been assassinated at the time of the vision.
He described where and when it had started, where it was burning, and was relieved when he informed the company that its progress had been halted not far from his own house. In his book, he described how the Zulus assumed that anyone could practice a form of distant vision: When anything valuable is lost, they look for it at once; when they cannot find it, each one begins to practice this inner divination, trying to feel where the thing is; for, not being able to see it, he feels internally a pointing which tells him, if he will go down to such a place, it is there, and he will find it.
At length he sees it, and himself approaching it; before he begins to move from where he is he sees it very clearly indeed, and there is an end of doubt. The sight is so clear that it is as though it were not an inner sight, but as if he saw the very thing itself and the place where it is. Once, when he was lost, a group of them came out to find him, as if they had sensed his plight.
He might want to give his brother, who might be twenty miles away, a message; so he would set to and make a smoke signal, and then sit down and concentrate his mind on his brother. The column of smoke would be seen by all the blacks for miles around, and they would all concentrate their minds, and put their brains into a state of receptivity. Only his brother, however, would get into touch with him, and he could then suggest to his brother the message which he wished to convey. This has been one of the main functions of the tribal shaman.
However, the French missionary Friar P. Boilat published the results of his investigation into the psychic powers of African witch doctors in his Esquisses Senegalaises Sketches Senegalese. The witch doctor not only guessed the question correctly but also gave Boilat the accurate prediction that the documents he was waiting for would arrive in fifteen days. I had been up waiting for important dispatches from the front. I could not have been long in bed when I fell into a slumber, for I was weary. I soon began to dream. There seemed to be a death-like stillness about me. Then I heard subdued sobs, as if a number of people were weeping.
I thought I left my bed and wandered downstairs. There the silence was broken by the same pitiful sobbing, but the mourners were invisible. I went from room to room; no living person was in sight, but the same mournful sounds of distress met me as I passed along. I saw light in all the rooms; every object was familiar to me; but where were all the people who were grieving as if their hearts would break? I was puzzled and alarmed. What could be the meaning of all this? Determined to find the cause of a state of things so mysterious and so shocking, I kept on until I arrived at the East Room, which I entered.
There I met with a sickening surprise. Before me was a catafalque, on which rested a corpse wrapped in funeral vestments. Around it were stationed soldiers who were acting as guards; and there was a throng of people, gazing mournfully upon the corpse, whose face was covered, others weeping pitifully. I slept no more that night; and although it was only a dream, I have been strangely annoyed by it ever since. Less well known is the fact that General Ulysses S.
On the morning of the day of the assassination, Mrs. Grant felt a great sense of urgency that she, her husband, and her child should leave Washington and return to their home in New Jersey. The general had appointments throughout the day and could not leave, but as Mrs. Her insistence was so great that he finally agreed to leave with her, even though they were scheduled to accompany the president to the theater that night. It told the story of a new monster ocean liner, the largest ever built, designed to be unsinkable and so, despite a capacity of three thousand passengers, carried only twenty-four lifeboats, the minimum number required by regulation.
It was described as being eight hundred feet long and built with nineteen watertight compartments, separated by bulkheads that would close automatically upon impact. However, a starboard impact with an iceberg near midnight on her Atlantic crossing sank the liner, with heavy loss of life. Fourteen years later Titanic, feet long, with sixteen watertight compartments, and despite a capacity of three thousand passengers equipped with only twenty lifeboats, collided with an iceberg on her starboard side at p.
What made the resemblance between the novel and the actual sinking even more uncanny was the name Morgan Robertson had given his fictional liner: Titan. ChurchilVs Close Call In her autobiography, Lady Churchill recalled that after a tour of inspection he made during the Blitz of London, Winston Churchill was about to get into a staff car on the near side, as he always did, when, for no apparent reason, he stopped and got into the other side of the car instead, something Lady Churchill had never known him to do before. While being driven back a bomb fell near the car, lifting it up on its two nearside wheels.
The dream was repeated every night from then on, until, on May 24, Booth called Paul Williams of the Federal Aviation Administration at the Cincinnati airport. When the DC- 10 was three hundred feet off the ground, it suddenly banked right, turned upside down, and crashed nose first, with lives lost. A burning question that arises from reports like these is: Are these glimpses of what will happen, or only of what might happen if steps are not taken to avoid it?
Louisa Rhine probed this question in great detail. She examined cases in which the foreseen event was so unpleasant that anyone would want to prevent it. In about two-thirds of the cases, no attempt was made to prevent the event, because the person simply forgot, feared ridicule, or for some other reason.
In the end, she was left with cases in which people had attempted to prevent a foreseen event from taking place. In 3 1 percent of the cases, the attempted intervention was unsuccessful, most often because the psychic experience had not provided enough information to allow the experient to prevent the occurrence. However, in the remaining cases 69 percent the people were able to take adequate steps to prevent the event, or at least to avoid some of the undesirable consequences. She awoke her husband who said it was a silly dream and that she should go back to sleep.
The weather was so calm the dream did appear ridiculous and she could have gone back to sleep. But she did not. She went and brought the baby back to her own bed. These cases suggest that the future exists not deterministically but only as a range of probabilities, and that human intervention may affect which of those events of varying probability actually do occur. Louisa Rhine advised a pragmatic approach to what appear to be glimpses into the future.
If it appears to be a warning, then it should be treated as such, and steps should be taken to avoid the problem. But with the present state of our ignorance, and because of the number of cranks in our midst, she advised against issuing public warnings. And since we know so little about the nature of these experiences, and because efforts to prevent disasters often fail for reasons entirely beyond the control of the person who had the experience, she also counseled that there is absolutely no reason to feel any guilt over failures to prevent these mishaps.
Psychic Spies From to the U. Six hours after Dozier was kidnapped, the remote viewers, including Joe McMoneagle, were given a photograph of the general and his name, and asked to describe his location. Enough time had elapsed to have moved Dozier out of Italy, so no one was sure if he was still in the country. McMoneagle provided the name of the town where Dozier was being hidden — Padua — and another remote viewer gave the name of the building.
Meanwhile, the Italian authorities received a tip from a relative of one of the kidnappers, and Dozier was rescued by the Italian paramilitary police shortly before information from the remote viewers arrived. Remote Sensing The following case was related to a prominent parapsychologist by a manager at a high-technology firm: In the middle of the night, out of a deep sleep, Fred suddenly jerked upright into a sitting position.
He clutched his chest, gasping for breath. They glanced at the clock: A. Fifteen minutes later, as they settled back to sleep, the phone rang. We were sleeping, when she suddenly sat bolt upright, clutched her chest, and. He went on many raids over Germany in At that time we had a dog, Milo, who was half spaniel, half Collie, and was particularly fond of Michael. One night in June, Michael was on his way home from a raid when he radioed to base to say that he was just off the coast of Belgium and would soon be back. That same night Milo, who slept in a stable at the back of the house, howled so much that my mother had to get up and bring him into the house.
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Michael never returned from his mission, that night. He was reported missing, believed killed, June 10, So if there is evidence of telepathic contact between dogs and humans, there should also be evidence of telepathy between dogs. Here is one of seven collected by Sheldrake in which the death of one dog occurred unexpectedly and at a distance; this one was reported by Dr.
There I left her mother, Zoubida, aged ten. About A. At A. The guard of our house had found Zoubida dead. She had been poisoned. Feelings communicated telepathically include fear, alarm, excitement, calls for help, calls to go to a particular place, anticipation of arrivals or departures, and distress and dying. Normally, dogs seem to be the most sensitive, followed by cats, horses, and parrots, with humans trailing far behind. Anecdotal evidence is of course still evidence, but often it can only be considered merely suggestive, not conclusive.
This is especially so when we are dealing with a complex phenomenon involving many variables. So, for instance, if a number of formerly depressed patients tell their physicians that they feel better after taking some herbal supplement, most of the physicians will not simply accept the reports at face value. After all, the positive effects in a patient may be due to any number of factors — a healthier diet, more exercise, nicer weather, the placebo effect, or any combination of such factors.
With the accumulation of enough anecdotal reports, double-blind experiments might be performed, with the purpose of controlling as many causal variables as possible in order to determine if there really is an effect, and, if so, of what magnitude.
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Most of us may have no problem with accepting anecdotal reports on some subjects, such as, say, the amusing behavior of house cats, because most of us have seen domestic cats in action. But psi phenomena are comparatively rare, and for this and other reasons their existence is highly controversial. So the conventional theorists have attempted to explain away the anecdotal reports as being due to coincidence, misperception, faulty memory, embellishment, hallucination, fraud, and so forth.
The skeptics have demanded — quite reasonably — experimental evidence for the existence of psi. Has reliable experimental evidence been provided? Psychic phenomena have failed to be verified after years of attempts involving thousands of independent experiments. After all this time, we can safely assume they do not exist. The statistical results of the studies examined are far beyond what is expected by chance. The earl membership included many distinguished scholars and scientists of the late Victorian era, including the Cambridge philosopher Henry Sidgwick, distinguished physicists William Barrett and William Crookes, and Nobel laureates Lord Rayleigh and J.
Thomson, the latter being the discoverer of the electron. Arthur Balfour was a philosopher, politician, and, from to , prime minister of England. All three Balfours would in turn serve as presidents of the Society. In the distinguished philosopher-psychologist William James helped found the American Society for Psychical Research in New York, and both organizations exist to this day.
Much of the early work involved investigation of spontaneous cases, and of hauntings and apparitions. It is clearly impossible. The SPR was also notoriously tough in its investigations, and it exposed several fraudulent mediums. As mentioned, most of the early work focused on case studies, but a few of the early researchers were already conducting experiments involving card guessing and the remote viewing of drawings.
Nobel Laureate Charles Richet is generally credited with being the first to recognize that probability theory could be applied to card-guessing experiments, and in he published a paper on the application of statistics to experiments testing clairvoyance. Fisher and other pioneer statisticians. By this time, J. Rhine was setting up the first university laboratory to be devoted exclusively to parapsychological research. Even the best hitters in baseball cannot produce home runs on demand, nor can we predict with certainty when home runs will occur. But this does not mean home runs do not occur.
Statistics are used whenever there is difficulty separating signal from noise. The frequency of home runs obviously depends on the player, but for any individual batter in a single game it will also depend upon the skill of the pitcher, his state of mind, the angle of the sun, the wind, and probably a host of other factors. Yet, over the long run, a good baseball player should hit the ball a fairly consistent proportion of times, and we should expect fairly consistent differences between players.
The same should be true of psi. If it exists, it may not be replicable on demand, but over the long run in well-controlled laboratory experiments we should expect to see a consistent level of results, above that expected by chance. Evidence based on statistics comes from comparing what actually happened with what would have been expected to happen if chance alone were operating.
Jessica Utts, professor of statistics at the University of California at Davis, illustrates this point by noting that about 51 percent of births in the United States result in boys.
If someone claimed to have a method that enabled a couple to increase the chances of having a baby of the desired sex, then we could examine the validity of their claim by comparing the percentage of boys bom using that method with the percentage expected when chance alone is operating. If the actual percentage is higher than the chance percentage of 5 1 percent over the long run , then we may conclude that the claim is supported by statistical evidence. However, simply showing that the results were greater than that expected by chance is not enough, because in smaller samples departures from chance are more likely.
No one is likely to be impressed by finding two boys in a sample of only three births. But where do we draw the line? Is seven boys in a sample ol ten births sufficient evidence to establish the claim? Or do we require at least 70 boys in births? In order to answer questions like these, statisticians have developed numerical methods for comparing actual results to those expected by chance.
If the p-value is very small, then we would be unlikely to have obtained these results by chance alone. Suppose, for example, someone performed an experiment with ten couples who desire boys, and out of ten births, seven were boys. If chance alone were responsible — that is, if the method of sex selection did not, in fact, work — then the probability of seven boys in ten births would be.
Thus, the result of the experiment would have a p-value of 0. The standard convention is to use a p-value of. Obviously, the smaller the p-value the more convincingly chance can be ruled out as an explanation for the observed results. According to the standard convention, in the example above, seven boys out of ten births would not qualify as a statistically significant departure from chance since. Note that a p-value can also be expressed in terms of odds against chance, with a p-value of. So, we may expect about 1 in 20 experiments to provide results significant at the 5 percent level even if nothing but chance is responsible.
Replication and Effect Size In the past few decades, scientists have begun to realize that replication efforts need to take into account not only p-values but also the magnitude of the effect, or the effect size. This is because the p-value is heavily dependent on the size of the study. The smaller the effect size, the larger the study required to attain statistical significance.
Very powerful effects only require small studies to convincingly rule out chance, whereas very small effects require large studies. Jessica Utts illustrates this relationship with her example mentioned above: In our hypothetical sex-determination experiment, suppose 70 out of births designed to be boys actually resulted in boys, for a rate of 70 percent instead of the 5 1 percent expected by chance. The experiment would have ap-value of 0.
Now suppose someone attempted to replicate the experiment with only ten births and found 7 boys, i. The smaller experiment would have a p-value of 0. If we were simply to focus on that issue, the result would appear to be a failure to replicate the original result, even though it achieved exactly the same 70 percent boys! In only ten births it would require 90 percent of them to be boys before chance could be ruled out. Yet the 70 percent rate is a more exact replication of the result than the 90 percent. A Type I error occurs when we mistakenly conclude that there is an effect when there really is none: that is, it occurs when the experimental result occurred purely by chance.
The level of significance is therefore a measure of the probability of a Type I error. In the example above, there is a probability of. A Type II error occurs when we mistakenly conclude that there is no effect when there really is one. This typically occurs when our sample size is too small to detect an effect as statistically significant, as in the example above using only ten births.
This is essentially a set of procedures for combining the results of many small studies into one large study in order to see if there is an overall effect and, if there is, to determine how big it is and whether it varies with variations in experimental procedure. Meta-analysis is widely used in medicine and the behavioral sciences.
The final statistic we need is the confidence interval. This is expressed as a range of values around the result of our experiment: for instance, the 95 percent confidence interval would be the range of values that we are 95 percent confident contains the actual underlying effect size.
Note that the first confidence interval does not include the chance value of 51, and so we can be fairly confident that the results were not simply due to chance. Our confidence should increase if we find additional studies with similar results. But his fervent fundamentalist faith did not survive the intellectual challenges it encountered there, and it was soon abandoned. But like many others who had lost their religious faith, Rhine found the materialism of the then-prevailing scientific worldview distasteful. And so, like Sidgwick and Myers before him, he turned to the study of psychic phenomena as a possible means of finding an alternative to this bleak outlook without sacrificing an impeccable scientific approach.
After graduating with a Ph. Zener came up with a set of twenty-five cards with five different symbols — circle, square, star, cross, and wavy lines — each repeated five times. These cards were then used in card-guessing experiments. If chance alone were operating, over many trials each card should be chosen about 20 percent of the time.
In the preliminary trials Rhine and Zener carried out in , nearly 26 percent were guessed correctly when would have been expected by chance. It was a modest start, but it launched Rhine on his long career as an experimental parapsychologist. What convinced Rhine that he was dealing with a genuine effect was the manner in which results varied according to various psychological and physiological conditions.
For instance, Rhine found that a depressant drug, such as sodium amytal, decreased the level of scoring, whereas a stimulant, such as caffeine, increased scores. In later experiments, Rhine would find this relationship held true even when subjects were unaware of which drug they were taking. The early tests focused on telepathy, with a subject in one room trying to identify the order of cards as they were read by a sender in another room. Rhine quickly realized the difficulty in distinguishing the effects of telepathy from clairvoyance, and he devised an experiment to test pure telepathy, in which the sender would simply think of each successive symbol, using a coded numerical association unknown to the subject.
Later experiments dispensed with an agent viewing the cards and were therefore tests of clairvoyance. In these tests the subject usually tried to identify the order of the cards as they lay in an opaque envelope or in another room. Still later, Rhine introduced tests of precognition, in which the subject would try to guess the order of the cards before they were randomly shuffled. After attaining double the scores expected by chance in some preliminary experiments, Rhine was eager to devise a test for Pearce that would exclude every conceivable possibility of an explanation not requiring ESP.
Accordingly, he then asked a research assistant named Gaither Pratt to perform a long-distance experiment, in which the subject, Pearce, located in one building, would attempt to identify the order of the cards as they were handled, but not viewed, by Pratt, the experimenter, located in another building.
In this way 1, trials were completed, resulting in hits when only would be expected by chance. The odds against these results occurring by chance were calculated to be astronomical, at 22 billion to one. By , Rhine was ready to publish his findings, and this he did in a book titled Extra-Sensory Perception, thereby introducing the acronym ESP to the English language.
The scientific community was now faced with the largest body of evidence for psychic phenomena ever collected through conventional experimental methods. But acceptance did not come easily. Critical articles began to appear, challenging almost every aspect of the evaluative techniques and experimental conditions.
Between and , approximately sixty critical articles by forty authors appeared, primarily in the psychological literature. Since Rhine had based his conclusions entirely on statistical analysis of data, many of the earliest criticisms focused on the statistical methods Rhine had used. At a press conference in , Camp released a statement to the press that read: Dr.
On the experimental side mathematicians, of course, have nothing to say. On the statistical side, however, recent mathematical work has established the fact that, assuming that the experiments have been properly performed, the statistical analysis is essentially valid. If the Rhi ne investigation is to be fairly attacked, it must be on other than mathematical grounds. It is true that some of the early exploratory experiments did not provide adequate shielding against sensory cues.
But while Rhine did not base major conclusions on such poorly controlled data, criticisms of these experiments distracted attention from experiments whose results could not be explained by sensory cues, such as the Pearce-Pratt series. Critics pointed out that under certain conditions the cards could be read from the back, because of the printing impression, and this explanation for the positive results began to circulate.
The parapsychologists retorted that defective cards had not been used in any of the experiments reported in the literature, and, in any case, this defect could not explain the results when the cards were shielded in opaque envelopes, behind a screen, or when, as in the Pearce-Pratt series, tester and subject were in different buildings. And there was no way sensory cues could explain the results of the precognition experiments, in which the target series did not even exist until the responses had been safely recorded. The phrase after sixty years was a reference to , the year the original SPR had been founded.
Ir ESP as the book came to be known statistical procedures used were explained in detail, criticisms were rebutted, and it was shown how results from the six best parapsychology experiments could not be explained away by any of these criticisms. The professional response to this book was far more positive, and parapsychology gained a measure of acceptance. Other laboratories began ESP research without fear of ridicule, and independent replications began to be reported.
Parapsychologist Charles Honorton performed a detailed statistical review ol the early experiments, and this was his conclusion: By nearly one million experimental trials had been reported under conditions which precluded sensory leakage. These included five studies in which the target cards were enclosed in opaque sealed envelopes, 16 studies employing opaque screens, ten studies involving separation of subjects and targets in different buildings and two studies involving precognition tasks. The results were independently significant in 27 of the 33 experiments.
By the end of the s there was general agreement that the better-controlled ESP experiments could not be accounted for on the basis of sensory leakage. Duke vs. Error Some Place! Since , most of the criticisms of the early results have focused on the possibility of fraud on the part of the subject, the experimenter, or both. One of the most prominent critics was the English psychologist C.
For instance, in the case of the above-mentioned Pearce-Pratt experiments, Hansel pointed out that Rhine and Pratt had failed to assign someone to watch Pearce at all times during the experiment. So it was conceivable, Hansel argued, that Pearce could have left his station, made his way to where Pratt was situated, peered through a glass window or through a trap door in the ceiling and watched Pratt as he turned over the cards while compiling the target sheet, and only then completed his own target sheet. Hansel never provided any direct evidence that fraud actually did occur; he merely raised the possibility that fraud could have occurred and thereby argued that the experiments cannot be considered conclusive proof of ESP.
Almost forty years after ESP, Hansel wrote: A possible explanation other than [ESP], provided it involves only well established processes, should not be rejected on the grounds of its complexity.