Manual Japans Last Bid for Victory: The Invasion of India, 1944

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A night attack by the Japanese on 23 March was beaten back with heavy artillery support, but by 27 March the shattered 50 Indian Parachute Brigade was forced to withdraw.

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The victory was Pyrrhic for the Japanese. In addition to suffering heavy casualties, particularly among junior officers, they had been delayed a crucial week in reaching Kohima. More grievous still, the British had captured a copy of the Japanese battle plan, which tipped them off that a full division was headed for Kohima. With 50 Indian Parachute Brigade committed to the fighting northeast of Imphal, Kokoda was defended only by a few units of rear area troops.

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Only a single battalion of Indian Brigade was able to reach Kohima before the Japanese surrounded the village, but the remainder of Indian Brigade took up positions west of the village and provided badly needed artillery support for the defenders. The siege of Kohima was finally lifted on 18 April. Now the British went over to the offensive. Stopford had Indian Brigade in the town itself; 7 Indian Division Messervy coming down from the north after having been airlifted in from Arakan; 23 Long Range Penetration Brigade in the Japanese rear interfering with Japanese supply lines; and 2 Division preparing to storm Kohima Ridge and reopen the road to Imphal.

The battle was vicious and bloody. The Japanese had already built formidable bunkers throughout the areas they controlled, and had to be blasted out by tanks and artillery. Nothing short of a 5. However, by 11 May the British held all of the Kohima area except for Naga village to the northeast and Aradura to the south. However, 15 Division was soon in trouble. Understrength, with one regiment and most of its transport still in Thailand or fighting the Chindits, the division went into battle with just six understrength battalions and its commander, Yamauchi Masafumi , dying of tuberculosis.

Most of its artillery and almost all its antitank weapons had to be left behind, though Naka , the Burma Area Army chief of staff, blandly assured Yamauchi that the British would have no tanks. The column on the right advanced on Kohima from the west side of the Kohima-Imphal road while the left column advanced on Imphal from the north.

The left column had reached the hills overlooking Imphal by 31 March. When a British tank reconnaissance turned back after having a few grenades thrown at it on 1 April April Fool's Day , Yamauchi rashly concluded that his lack of antitank weapons would be no problem, and he ordered an advance on Kameng, at the edge of the Imphal Plain on the road from Ukhrul to Imphal. Hill , known to the British as Nungshigum These were driven off by a battalion of 51 Regiment on 7 April.

A British company supported by Hurribombers retook the position only to be counterattacked repeatedly and finally driven off on 11 April. A full-blooded British assault supported by 16 Vengeance dive bombers, 8 Hurribombers, a squadron of tanks, and the massed artillery of 5 Division was staged on 13 April.

The Japanese were astonished to find that British tanks could go up fairly steep hills, but the British began taking heavy casualties among the exposed tank commanders. The fighting became so intense that every tank and infantry officer on the British side became a casualty, while the Japanese battalion was annihilated and none of its surviving officers were left unwounded.

A desperate Japanese counterattack that evening was driven off. Shortly thereafter the commander of 51 Regiment , Omoto Kimio, reported to Yamauchi that he was taking his entire force to attack Hill -- a position that was actually to the east of Nungshigum. It was a veiled way of requesting permission to withdraw in the face of British armor he was unequipped to cope with.

Yamauchi considered Omoto his best regimental commander; he reluctantly gave permission. British control of Nungshigum stopped the Japanese advance on Imphal from Ukhrul and threatened the lines of communication of 60 Regiment on the Kohima-Imphal Road.

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The Japanese had reached their closest point to Imphal but had been turned back. British historians consider 19 April the turning point of the battle: Kohima had been relieved, 17 Indian Division had been extricated from the Tiddim road, and the Japanese thrusts from southeast and northeast had been stopped. By 28 April Mutaguchi himself was becoming pessimistic about the likelihood of Japanese victory, and the Japanese Army Vice Chief of Staff, Hata Hikosaburo, visited Rangoon on 30 April and returned to Tokyo on 11 May with a bleak assessment of the likelihood of success.

But Tojo badly needed a victory and refused to call off the offensive. Kawabe also badly needed a victory. Hard-pressed in northern Burma by Stilwell and the Chinese , he visited Mutaguchi on 6 June and discussed redeploying 31 Division to the left of 15 Division for one last attempt to take Imphal from the northeast. This strategy tacitly accepted that Sato had already begun to retreat from Kohima.

The Japanese Descent Into Disaster.

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  7. On 10 May Mutaguchi had relieved Yanagida for cowardice. The new commander of 33 Division , Tanaka Nobuo, was shocked by the appearance of his troops, but was able to stir their morale sufficiently to resist the British counterattack of 2 June. The brigade had failed to eject the Japanese from Ninthoukhong, suffering casualties and loss of three tanks in the attempt.

    On 18 May 48 Indian Brigade cut the road and turned north to roll up the Japanese. However, the other arm of the pincers, 63 Indian Brigade, was stopped by fierce Japanese resistance at Kha Aimol, though its seizure of Three Pimple Height cut communications between Tanaka and his forward regiments. Bypassing Ningthoukhong, the brigade was back in contact with 17 Indian Division on 30 May. Though the envelopment had failed, the British had inflicted a thousand casualties on 33 Division.

    Tanaka was simultaneously trying to cut Cowan's own supply line. A single British platoon held on to the key ground overlooking Cowan's headquarters, and 50 Indian Parachute Brigade and two troops of tanks led a counterattack that drove the Japanese back into the hills by the end of May. By then the lead Japanese battalions were reduced to 40 and 20 men each. The first attack, on the night of 24 may, failed when the headquarters group were killed by a mine, and subsequent attacks were equally disastrous for the Japanese. By 23 May 33 Division had suffered a total of casualties from the start of the campaign.

    By now Tanaka was beginning to sympathize with Yanagida, the man he had replaced. Tanak's men a finally drove the British out of Kha Aimol on 7 June and Tanaka was able to regain contact with and Regiments. He was reinforced at about this time with Regiment on loan from 54 Division in Arakan and Regiment on loan from 53 Division in north Burma. A commando-style raid was also planned on the artillery at Nunggang. The raid was successful, the attack on Forest Hill achieved surprise and drove the British off, but the Japanese could not capture Plum Hill.

    Another Japanese command-style raid penetrated to within four miles of Imphal -- their closest approach in the battle -- and destroyed some artillery, trucks and tanks before being driven off. Meanwhile Sato was being gradually pried out of Kohima. Just two Japanese supply convoys carrying mostly artillery rounds made it to Kohima, and while Miyazaki had made a point of treating the Naga natives along his route of march well, so that they would willingly provide food to his foragers, almost none of this reached Sato at division headquarters.

    Most of the Nagas remained loyal to the British, and together with the Chindits, they put considerable pressure on Sato's lines of communication.

    Early career

    On 17 April , Sato had received an order from Mutaguchi to take Kohima by 29 April and then send three battalions to the Imphal front. Sato responded to the order with mokusatsu , contemptuous silence, but when the order was repeated he replied that it was impossible. On 25 May Sato was informed that all the available transport for 15 Army was committed to bringing reinforcements to 33 Division and there would be no supplies for 31 Division.

    Sato was determined to save his men from annihilation and signaled 15 Army that he was going to withdraw to a point where his men could be resupplied. When Sato received a farewell message from one of his regimental commanders at Kohima on 31 May he gave the order for the entire division to retreat. The arrival of the monsoon on about 27 May further increased the misery of the Japanese troops, along with their British adversaries.

    Had a single regiment from his division been committed to Kohima, as Slim originally expected, and the rest deployed against Imphal from the beginning, Imphal might have fallen. Now it was too late. Sato arrived in the vicinity of Ukhrul on 21 June and found that the supplies promised him had been taken by 15 Division. Sato pressed on to Humine Sato set his men to foraging in the mountains to the west, but there were already beginning to be deaths from starvation. By 4 June Miyazaki was attempting a fighting withdrawal down the Kohima-Imphal road. Meanwhile 60 Regiment also began to withdraw from its positions along the road.

    The siege of Imphal was lifted on 22 June, when 2 and 5 Indian Divisions finally linked up along the road. He avoided a return to civilian life by obtaining a permanent commission in the Indian Army in His inter-war career was slow, but he attended the Quetta Staff College where his performance resulted in appointments to Army Headquarters in Delhi and then Staff College, Camberley, where he taught from to Promoted to lieutenant-colonel in , Slim commanded 2nd Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles before becoming head of the Senior Officers' School at Belgaum.

    As commander of the 10th Indian Brigade, Slim took part in the conquest of Abyssinia where he was again wounded. Promoted to major-general in June , he led 10th Indian Division during the Iraq expedition, the Syria-Lebanon campaign, and the invasion of Iran. In March he was promoted to command Burma Corps, which had been chased out of Rangoon by the Japanese. Heavily outnumbered, Slim was forced to withdraw to India. But he made sure the mile 1,km retreat did not turn into a rout, leading a controlled military withdrawal.

    But perhaps his greatest contribution was that of talking to soldiers and restoring their morale.

    Battle of Kohima: The Greatest World War Two Battle Everyone Forgot

    He was a fine manager of men and able to get them to do his bidding. In return, Slim's men saw him as one of them. Slim undertook a partially successful attack in the Arakan in February Then, in the battles of Imphal and Kohima , he repelled a Japanese invasion of north-east India. Both campaigns demonstrated that his new approach worked.

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    The Japanese were able to encircle the formations of 14th Army, but could not defeat them. Next, Slim drove the Japanese south. Fighting through the monsoon and supplied by air, his men crossed the River Chindwin, took Akyab in the Arakan, and won bridgeheads across the Irrawaddy. After fierce fighting, Meiktila and Mandalay were captured in March The route south to Rangoon now lay open.

    It was a victory won through the courage and endurance of the troops, and the superb generalship of Slim. Between and he was governor-general of Australia. These formed the turning point of one of the most gruelling campaigns of the Second World War. The decisive Japanese defeat in north-east India in became the springboard for the subsequent re-conquest of Burma. Between December and August , British Commonwealth troops and their allies fought a bitter war across the vast expanses of Asia and the Pacific Ocean against a tenacious and often brutal enemy.

    Nepalese soldiers known as Gurkhas have fought for Britain since Here we explore their history and find out why they have long been regarded among the finest and fiercest soldiers.

    Japs Trapped At Imphal (1944)

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