How sales are made. How the built world is constructed. Before the escalator was invented, commerce and transportation were largely one-dimensional. Stairs and elevators were for the committed and purposeful, their limitations constraining vertical expansion, above and below ground. Stairs require patience and effort. Elevators have a unique, precise, and tightly constrained mission. The invention of the escalator changed everything: suddenly, a constant flow of people could ascend into the air, or descend to the depths.
The escalator modified architecture itself, creating fluid transitions into spaces above and below. Now, in commerce and transportation, neither the sky nor the ground would be the limit. Ames was an inventor with several patents, including a railroad switch, a printing press, and a combination knife, fork, and spoon.
As the 20th century drew near, urbanization transformed society, and the development of the escalator was inextricably connected with the new way that people were living and working. Architecture responded to increasing populations in cities through the development of skyscrapers, department stores, and urban planning. Mass transit facilitated movement via electric streetcars, elevated trains, and the promise of subway systems.
Revolutions in printing and photography heralded an explosion of advertising and new ways to sell goods. These cultural and economic developments coincided with the most important technological improvement in the moving staircase: the use of a linear belt, invented by Jesse Reno. Reno was an engineer, working at the time on a plan for a subway system in New York City, involving slanted conveyors to move passengers underground. After the city declined to adopt his plan, he focused instead on the technology.
During two weeks at Coney Island, 75, people were elevated seven feet.
It was a sensation. Building on this success, a Reno Inclined Elevator was installed at the Brooklyn Bridge the following year.
What do the Mona Lisa, the light bulb, and a Lego brick have in common? The answer - intellectual property IP - may be surprising. In this lustrous collection, Claudy Op den Kamp and Dan Hunter have brought together a group of contributors - drawn from around the globe in fields including law, history, sociology, science and technology, media, and even horticulture - to tell a history of IP in 50 objects.
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As so often happens when cultural movements and technological innovation intersect, another inventor contemporaneously created a different version of the moving staircase. It comprised steps that emerged from the floor and flattened at the end. The Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping notes that the escalator is among the most important innovations in retail marketing, remarking that no invention has had more impact on shopping.
The elevator can transport a small number of people between floors. The stairway is constrained by the effort and commitment it requires from consumers to move between floors. But the moving staircase democratizes all levels; upper floors become indistinguishable from lower. Retail traffic flows seamlessly between levels, so that the consumers can access higher floors with little more effort than entering on the first floor.
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A universe of possibility opened when moving staircases were introduced to the world at the Paris Universal Exposition of Louis, , and both atomic energy and television San Francisco, The Paris Exposition of , in particular, has been called one of the most important of them all. At the time, though, organizers and government officials were concerned how this Exposition would make its mark—after the introduction of the Eiffel Tower at the fair in , how could the one 11 years later compete? Officials entertained many bizarre proposals, many of which involved alterations of the Eiffel Tower itself including the potential additions of clocks, sphinxes, terrestrial globes, and a foot statue of a woman with eyes made from powerful searchlights to scan the acre fairgrounds.
Instead, rather than beams of light from a giantess, what shone brightest at the Paris Exposition was the moving staircase. Kassandra's dad is killed in a car accident because of Maddon's father's road rage. Kassandra and Maddon are night and day: she is a cheerleader and very popular and he is in a band and is not that popular.
However, their worlds are now entwined and Kassandra sees that Maddon is nothing like his father.
The question becomes will they be able to have a relationship? Considering all that has happen to them it would be extremely hard. Maddon is nothing like his father, though everyone assumes he is. Kassandra now has all these new responsibilities and still just be a high school student. I think Tiffany did an wonderful job on this book and would recommended it to anyone and everyone!
Jun 07, A Book Vacation rated it it was amazing. This is a beautifully written story of forgiveness, of learning to forgive others and to forgive oneself while finding redemption. I am always amazed at the power of words and the way amazing authors are able to wield them, and King has once created a true masterpiece. Looking at the life of high school students, how everything can change in an instant, and the definition of true friendships, King takes the reader on a powerful, breathtaking rollercoaster ride; this is a must read! I found Forever Changed to be a captivating, delicious novel that held my attention from start to finish.
Though I cried many times throughout the novel, this is a very powerful read that I believe all will enjoy. I am a fan for life! Jun 18, Lori rated it it was amazing. Forever Changed is a beautiful story about finding love in the most unexpected places at the most unexpected time. Kassandra and Maddon are both such beautiful characters who come from such different places I felt for Kassandra and Maddon both, for different reasons.
Tiffany King wrote a beautiful story, that had me feeling numerous emotions throughout the book Full review to com Forever Changed is a beautiful story about finding love in the most unexpected places at the most unexpected time. Full review to come.. Apr 22, Lisa Anthony rated it it was amazing. Kassandra is a typical teen whose top priorities involve her social world, friends, texting, and cheerleading. But when tragedy hits her family and her life is changed and she becomes responsible as she matures in many ways. Maddon lives with a daily tragedy of his own, but when a similar tragedy occurs that involves both Kassandra and Maddon their lives will never be the same.
This book is a great teen book about friendship, life, loss, trust, forgiveness and love. For more indie book reviews: Kassandra is a typical teen whose top priorities involve her social world, friends, texting, and cheerleading. For more indie book reviews: Myindieauthorfix. Nov 25, Nancy The book junkie rated it really liked it Shelves: ebooks-i-own , books-to-review. Rating: 3. Jun 20, Melissa rated it it was amazing.
A very good read. It felt real I felt the emotion that was expected, very well written and a great storyline. Jun 08, Sharon rated it it was amazing. Wonderful,emotion packed,lovely book. The characters are lovable,deep, interesting. Good writing,nice pacing that just keeps you into the story. I didn't have a dull moment I recommend this one. View 2 comments. Jul 23, Danielle Young rated it it was amazing. Kassandra's world has come to a crashing halt. Her father passed away, her little sister is in shock and has gone mute and her mother is a ghost of her former self.
With the realization that things will never be the same, Kassandra faces who she was and decides who it is she really wants to be. Life for Kassandra starts off incredibly bleak in Forever Changed. The first couple of chapters are so full of sorrow and pain that it actually made it hard for me to read.
This book hit a little close to Kassandra's world has come to a crashing halt. This book hit a little close to home for me and brought me back to a time when I felt a lot of Kassandra's pain. Losing a parent is never easy and author Tiffany King does an excellent job in depicting the grief that Kassandra and her family are going through. It was so real and so raw I had to put the book down a couple of times as I was already in tears a few pages in. But as the story progresses we begin to see a glimmer of hope shine through.
As little by little Kassandra slowly puts the pieces of her life back together, but things aren't all rainbows and happiness once she has accepted the fact of what her life has become. Oh no, her life is far from it. Those she thought would be there for her suddenly aren't and suddenly she is dealing with not only the loss of her father, but of those she once called friends.
With so many things going wrong for Kassandra it is amazing that she didn't become a complete shell and hide under a rock. Okay, so maybe she was a shell, but she pushed on, putting on that brave face for her little sister each and every day. Kassandra's life went from happiness and sunshine, cheerleading and friends, to pain and sorrow, lonliness and grief; in the blink of an eye.
Enter Maddon, the son of the man responsible for killing Kassandra's father and you have the recipe for an explosive story! And that's exactly what happens once Maddon enters the scene. Suddenly Maddon becomes the target of all of Kassandra's anger and pain, but Maddon understands a thing or two about anger and pain. After living with the two as siblings his entire life Maddon has learned to accept the things that life throws at him and channel it into something more soothing--music!
I absolutely adored all the characters in Forever Changed. Tiffany King does such a great job helping you connect with her characters, making them as real as any person you would find at the local high school. Forever Changed is amazingly beautiful and will have you so lost in the story of Kassandra that you won't even notice time slipping by until you have finished the story.
Tiffany King has the amazing ability to bring out all your emotions as a reader. She uses each one to build a story about life that can be related to by almost anybody. Make sure you pick up this raw beauty and fall in love with way that Tiffany King weaves a story! Jun 29, Kim Sliced Open Reviews rated it really liked it Shelves: book-i-own , books-reviewed , read-in , release. Moments like that in reading, well they are the moments I live for.
That second in a book that you get sucked under and dragged through this world that the author built only to get dumped out at the other side feeling like you ate, slept and breathed with the characters. From page one I was tied to Kass, then by page six I was hooked on Maddon. As each character is added to the story I continued to eat them up. She somehow was able to peel back each characters skull to let you look inside and see what they are thinking, feeling and wanting. I was so engulfed and addicted to each one, I eventually started checking the page count and wanted to scream each time we got closer to So, I thought I would put it out there that the POV changes are done with ease and provide a major insight into the plot and characters that without would have killed the story.
Like I said I was addicted to the characters and emotion in the story so I feel like maybe it could have been a tad longer allowing more of a tie up in the story. All and all? Great read, I would recommend to any of my friends and definitely recommend you pick it up! Mar 16, Gareth rated it it was amazing. Conflicting emotions expertly drawn through a moving story: Tiffany King demonstrates a talent for taking a character through personality and emotional changes, showing an evolvement from the behaviour of a child to the behaviour of an adult. In my humble opinion, this is the mark of a good YA story… showing that very transition into maturity.
And King writes this behavioural switch effortlessly through a page-turning storyline. Kassandra is Miss Popularity in High School — a somewhat spoilt and s Conflicting emotions expertly drawn through a moving story: Tiffany King demonstrates a talent for taking a character through personality and emotional changes, showing an evolvement from the behaviour of a child to the behaviour of an adult. Kassandra is Miss Popularity in High School — a somewhat spoilt and self-indulgent young lady whose priorities are brutally turned around by a family tragedy that takes her father and throws her life and family into turmoil.
Burdened with grief, her mother withdraws into a dissociative state, leaving Kassandra to take care of business, and take care, above all, of her little sister. Dealing with her own grief, watching her mother retreat more and more into a dysfunctional state, caring for her traumatised little sister, Kassandra is suddenly laden with responsibilities no girl of that age should have to bear. Maddon is the abused son of the man responsible for all of this tragedy.
He is also irresistibly drawn to Kassandra, even though he feels guilty and even not-worthy of anything but her scorn. And indeed scorn is what he gets as he tries to approach her… she literally hates the boy in school whose father ruined her family. Yet over time, at a carefully measured pace, the story shows how two victims of tragedy can draw together, for support, for friendship, and maybe for love. This keeps the pace lively, gives the reader a vivid portrayal of what both main characters are experiencing, and takes us through the exchange of feelings which this tragedy has brought about to both of them.
The author depicts an intelligent indicator of what TRUE friends should really be like. At its core, this is a story of two people who are reluctant enemies, but who are drawn together despite circumstances. You can expect the twists and turns that a good story boasts, and you can expect a moving prose that leads you hungrily to keep turning those pages.
Jun 06, Autumn Review rated it really liked it Shelves: arc , review. I'm really enjoying reading Tiffany King as a Contemporary Romance author. There is an ease and comfort to her writing. Forever Changed was no different. I quickly became enraptured with the story. The story begins with Kass at her father's funeral. My heart truly was breaking for her. This poor girl was left to take care of her family, since her mother was grieving so terribly. I felt so bad for Kass. She never really had a chance to grieve on her own. Then, her friends basically bailed on her. I just wanted to wrap her up in a hug.
I think that her counselor really helped her once she admitted she was having trouble coping. Then, there was Maddon. I love Maddon. Unfortunately, it takes a tragedy to bring them together, but the love they have for each other is really endearing. Despite the controversy is causes, they can't seem to stay away from each other. I have to mention the supporting characters. I loved Drake and Carrie, aka Slim Jim. I'd really like to see a story develop for them. I think they'd make a great couple. I would also like to mention that I loved the music aspect of the story and would have loved to see more about that part of their lives.
Forever Changed: Wonderful - Dar Rahaothello
Here's the thing, I loved the characters so much, that I wasn't ready for the story to end. The only thing keeping me from rating it a 5 was that, the development of the story was steady, but I did feel that the ending was wrapped up a little quickly. Again, I think I felt that way because, I wasn't ready for the story to end.
This book is a bittersweet love story. There is major tragedy, but what comes out of that tragedy is love. I felt like this was a beautiful read that YA and Adults could identify with and truly enjoy. View 1 comment. Jan 16, Dianne rated it it was amazing Recommends it for: Anyone!
Shelves: strong-male-characters , new-adult , ya , depression , ya-romance , strong-female-characters , coming-of-age. Kassandra's father is killed in an automobile accident by an enraged drunken driver. Her younger sister is injured and the trauma has left her refusing to speak.
Forever Changed by Tiffany King
The grief is overwhelming for Kassandra's mother, leaving Kass to be the adult in the home, taking care of everything while still trying to come to terms with the guilt she feels, as she thinks it is her fault the accident happened at all. Upon returning to school, Kass finds out just how superficial and self-absorbed her 'friends' are a Kassandra's father is killed in an automobile accident by an enraged drunken driver.
Upon returning to school, Kass finds out just how superficial and self-absorbed her 'friends' are and realizes she has been no better. She becomes an outcast to them. Maddon has a bad boy, rebel image, that he works hard to maintain. Sadly, there is so much more to him, that he feels the need to hide it, is a sad statement.
He also feels responsible for the accident that killed Kass's father. His abusive, alcoholic father was the enraged driver and wouldn't have been in that place at that time, if not for Maddon. He watches Kass from afar, until fate puts them in the same detention period. As Kass learns to forgive both herself and Maddon, Maddon learns to forgive himself. Love blooms between the unlikely pair and together they must either hide their feelings or face the unknown fallout.
As with all of Tiffany King's books, this is a richly detailed book with a message to send. It is a story of coming of age, accepting life as it is, learning to forgive and moving on. The love story between Kass and Maddon is warm with each showing an innocence, maturity, and sense of caring for others that is refreshing. With the changes of POV throughout the book, the reader is allowed in both Kass's and Maddon's heads and hearts. A wonderful 'feel good' read! Mar 31, Francis rated it it was amazing. Well, I have to say that when I first began this book I was kind of wondering if it would pick up and if it was worth it I feel like it began so slow.
I am though, also a sucker for an awesome love story and since this started off as a tragedy I was thinking and thinking when will I get the romance I'm searching for?! Well, I got it The story of Kassandra and Maddon left me wondering if they would ever be able to even Well, I have to say that when I first began this book I was kind of wondering if it would pick up and if it was worth it The story of Kassandra and Maddon left me wondering if they would ever be able to even make it work!
I just felt so much pain for the love they both yearned for that would never come. I mean how could you possibly love the one person who took everything away from you? Even though it literally wasn't Maddon's fault They both felt completely responsible for each other's hurt. It was truly devastating. Premium and Select Member Book Jan Forever Changed, Not Forever Damaged You wanna fly, you got to give up the shit that weighs you down.
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