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By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. This article about an encyclopedia is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. Furthermore, all the theories that state that the beginning of human life is later than at the moment of conception e. This leads to absurd consequences when one is forced not to recognize as human beings those who certainly are human beings.

Some of the findings of embryology the fact that until the time of implantation, two or more organisms can arise from one embryo, or that two zygotes can unite into one individual have influenced some thinkers to accept the theory of successive animation e.

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Some thinkers regard this theory as more probable than the theory of simultaneous animation. Some argue that the phenomenon of monozygotic twins does not provide sufficient grounds for rejecting the theory of simultaneous animation at the mo- ment of conception. Because of the particular epistemological and methodological character of such statements such statements belong to the experimental sciences and thus they can have only a hypothetical character , their ethical conclusions remain the same as when one pre- supposes simultaneous animation.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Abortion children as fitting. Clement of Alexandria states that Christians should not kill, by various means of a perverse art, the human offspring, born according to the designs of divine providence; for these women who, in order to hide their immorality, use abortive drugs which expel the matter completely dead, abort at the same time their human feelings.

Augustine condemned the slaying of children before they are born. Aubrey Stewart Enhanced Media, Simon P.

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New York: Fathers of the Church, Inc. Eerdmans Publishing Company, , In his commentary on the Sentences,22 St. Thomas also rejected the idea that abortion can be allowed for the good of the child. Thomas resorts to the principle that the end does not justify the means, or in other words, that one may not do evil that good may come of it. Aquinas also provided some principles that are indispensable in the moral evaluation of so-called therapeutic abortion, that is, the kill- ing of the child in order to save the life of the mother, and in distin- guishing this act from abortus indirectus.

Abortion le boudoir;26 he justifies abortion performed for the sake of controlling the population. This is also in harmony with the apotheosis of lust and coercion in his writings.

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Various forms of subjectivist approach to the norm of morality i. It is essential to a moral judgment that it should be based upon the perception of the truth about objective reality in which the acting subject finds himself—especially the truth about who the subject of an action and the person addressed in that ac- tion are in their ontic and axiological structures.

If abortion is the taking of the life of an innocent and defenseless human person, then this act is always and everywhere morally wrong. Such an act is always and everywhere wrong because no real conflict is possible between life and any other higher good. A child before birth cannot be qualified as an aggressor because he cannot perform rational and free actions. No possible doubts about the humanity of the fetus can change this moral qualification of abortion, because when someone undertakes an action which may be the killing of a human being, that person in fact 26 Londres The justification of abortion in terms of the expectation that thereby some good will be achieved e.

Meanwhile the human person by reason of his ontic and axiological dignity—based on his rationality and freedom which allow him to define and to choose his own ends by himself, and which does not depend upon the circumstances of his conception or living condi- tions, and by which the person is a bonum honestum, a good in him- self—definitely cannot be treated as a means to an end.

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The killing of the child before birth in order to save the life of the mother in cases where these goods are in conflict is also not morally justified. This situation must, however, be distinguished from abortus indirectus, that is, from cases where the obligation to save the life of a woman in immediate danger justifies a medical intervention which indi- rectly—unintendedly but unavoidably—results in the death of the child e.

Abortion both mother and child. In the latter case the child is treated merely as a means to the end of another person, which is as morally unjustified as it would be to treat the mother merely as a means for the good of the child.

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It is also morally impermissible to kill an unborn child who is mentally retarded such killing is defended in vitalistic conceptions of man supported by, e. He defines abortion as a deliberate and immediate killing of a human being before birth; he distinguishes it from spontaneous miscarriage or a situation where the child is allowed to die without this being intended, where the death is the result of causes not dependent upon acting persons—abortus indirectus.

In order to morally evaluate the act of abortion, the author considers both the ontic status of the conceived human being and the criteria usually used for the evalua- tion. Jowett, — Princeton: Princeton University Press, Gula, Janusz.

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Heaney, Stephen J. Psychologia racjonalna [Rational Psychology]. Miles, Steven H. The Hippocratic Oath and the Ethics of Medicine.

Oxford: Oxford University Press, Noonan, John. Pellegrino, Edmund D. The Virtues in Medical Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, Laws, Book V, translated by A. Taylor, —